12 de septiembre de 2022

Pink-flowered fumitories

This post regards those species that feature flowers with corolla that is pink at the beginning of flowering, not those with a corolla that becomes pink to purple with age.
When I started identifying fumitories in iNat I noticed that in some cases there was some confusion in these pink-flowered species and it happened that in some geographical areas for them the identification as F. officinalis was suggested by the AI. Actually, F. officinalis in some areas seems rather rare while other species such as F. bastardii and F. muralis regard the vast majority of observations.

Here a key to distinguish these species

1 - Corolla shorter than 9 mm. Sepals lanceolate. Upper petal with almost almost flat margins at apex, broadly spathulate. Fruit usually broader than long, emarginate or truncate at apex, very rarely broadly rounded. Inflorescence rich with 10 to 80 flowers. Leaves laciniae comparatively much narrower: F. officinalis s.l.
1' - Corolla longer than (8-)9 mm. Sepals ovate to suborbicular. Upper petal with margins from slightly to strongly bent upwards at apex, never spathulate but subobtuse to subacute. Fruit slightly longer than broad, rounded at apex. Inflorescence comparatively less rich with with 8 to 25 flowers. Leaves laciniae comparatively much broader: 2

2 - Inflorescence usually longer than peduncle (very rarely as long as or shorter), with 10-23(26) flowers. Corolla (8)9-11(12) mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 2,5-3,5 x 1,5-2,5(3?) mm, usually distinctly dentate at margin. Upper petal pink or dark purple at apex. Fruit strongly rugose when dried. Stigma?: F. bastardii
2' - Inflorescence usually longer than peduncle (rarely as long as or shorter?), with 8-20(25) flowers. Corolla 10-15 mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 3-5 x (1,5)2-2,5(3) mm, usually subentire or with soem teeth at base. Upper petal dark purple at apex. Fruit smooth or slightly rugulose when dried. Stigma with a distinctly visible central appendix that is longer than the two lateral ones: F. reuteri
2'' - Inflorescence usually shorter than or as long as peduncle (very rarely longer), with 8-15(20) flowers. Corolla (8)9-12(13) mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 2,5-5 x (1,5)2-2,5(3) mm, dentate or subentire at margin. Upper petal dark purple at apex. Fruit smooth or slightly rugulose when dried. Stigma with a barely visible central appendix that is shoter than the two lateral ones: F. muralis s.l.

F. bastardii can often be easily identified when the upper petal is concolorous being pink and not purple at apex and when it has a relatively rich inflorescence. The observation of the dried fruit surface is easy with just a linen tester.
F. reuteri and F. muralis are often hard to distinguish also in consideration that, at least, F. muralis can rarely show an inflorescence longer than peduncle. A reliable identification should need the observation of the stigma with a microscope.

Anyway, the recommendations made in this previous post are still valid:
https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/blue_celery/31675-fumaria-what-to-photograph-for-the-identification

References:
Lidén, M. 1986. Synopsis of Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae) with a monograph of the tribe Fumarieae. Opera Botanica 88: 1-133.
Lidén, M. 1986b. Fumaria L. In S. Castroviejo & al. (eds.): Flora Iberica 1: 447-467.
http://www.floraiberica.es/floraiberica/texto/pdfs/01_038_13_Fumaria.pdf
Murphy, R.J. 2009. Fumitories of Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles.

Ingresado el 12 de septiembre de 2022 por blue_celery blue_celery | 3 comentarios | Deja un comentario

18 de mayo de 2022

Malva sylvestris vs multiflora vs neglecta vs nicaeensis vs parviflora (key)

Malva sylvestris vs multiflora vs nicaeensis vs parviflora

1 - Epicalyx united at least in lower half. Petals 12-25(30) mm long, 2-3 times as long as calyx; with purple or deep pink stripes over a lilac background. Fruits smooth or slightly rugose. Leaves often somehow greysh-green. Annuals: Malva multiflora (=M. pseudolavatera)
1' - Epicalyx pieces separated. Petals 2,5-30(35) mm long, shorter than calyx or up to 5 times as long as calyx; whitish or tinged with rose in upper half or with purple or deep pink stripes over a lilac or pink background. Fruits reticulate or smooth. Leaves green. Annuals or perennials: 2

2 - Petals 15-30(35) mm long, up to 5 times as long as calyx, with purple or deep pink stripes over a pink background. Perennials: M. sylvestris
2' - Petals 2,5-12 mm long, shorter or up to twice as long as calyx, whitish or coloured with rose in upper half. Annuals (rarely parennials in M. neglecta): 3

3 - Petals 2,5-5 mm long, shorter to slightly longer than calyx, completely whitish or faintly rose-coloured at apex and without pink stripes. Calyx distinctly accrescent at fructification. Stem subglabrous: M. parviflora
3' - Petals 6-14 mm long, 1,2-twice as long as calyx, totally white or with faint pink stripes over a white or very light pinkish background or with pink stripes over a whitish background and pinkish at apex. Calyx not accrescent at fructification. Stem rather densely hairy: 4

4 - Petals with pink stripes over a whitish background and pinkish at apex, rarely whitish and with faint stripes. Fruits strongly reticulate, more often glabrous, rarely hairy. Epycalix pieces ovate or oblong-ovate, relatively broad and close to each other. Plants more often erect: M. nicaeensis
4' - Petals totally white or with faint pink stripes over a white or very light pinkish background. Fruits smooth or slightly reticulate, densely hairy. Epycalix pieces linear or narrowly lanceolate, narrow and distant from each other. Plants more often prostrate or decumbent: M. neglecta

Ingresado el 18 de mayo de 2022 por blue_celery blue_celery | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

04 de mayo de 2022

In search for the true Tragopogon porrifolius

Tragopogon is a rather critical genus as far as its taxonomy is concerned.
Here in the Mediterranean there are at least two other species resembling T. porrifolius L., T. eriospermus Ten. and T. cupanii Guss. ex DC., the latter endemics to some southern Italian regions.

For a rather long time T. porrifolius and T. eriospermus have been confused. Instead, despite both having "purple" flowers and inflated scape below the capitula, the two species are rather easily distinguished:

Here the original description of T. eriospermus and the first drawing:
http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/FN/TV/TV0176.PDF
http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/FN/TavoleFN/t0186.PDF

The type of T. porrifolius has been selected here:
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1222832
and can be viewed here:
https://linnean-online.org/9553/

Most of the observations of T. porrifolius from North America refer to another taxon that is more similar to T. eriospermus:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=97394&taxon_id=54141

In Europe it is just slightly better...

Maybe could it be worth revising the presence of the "purple-flowered" Tragopogon in North America?
To do this, apart photographing the capitulum and the scape below the capitulum, it would be useful to photograph:

1) leaves: undulate/not undulate at margins

2) phyllaries: reflexed/porrect at flowering

3) achenes when dried: achene body strongly narrowed into a very narrow rostrum or just slightly narrowed

4) habitat: dry or rather wet

Ingresado el 04 de mayo de 2022 por blue_celery blue_celery | 10 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de diciembre de 2021

Taxonomic Literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types

axonomic Literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types
Bibliographies, types and other data on almost all botanical authors.

https://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollectio ... /index.cfm
https://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollectio ... nloads.cfm

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/ite ... 1/mode/1up

Ingresado el 15 de diciembre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

07 de noviembre de 2021

Flora of Nepal

Flora of Nepal
http://www.floraofnepal.org/home

including free PDFs

Ingresado el 07 de noviembre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de noviembre de 2021

Taxonomic keys by Jean Leurquin (Naturalistes de la Haute-Lesse)

Taxonomic keys by Jean Leurquin (Naturalistes de la Haute-Lesse)

https://naturalistesdelahautelesse.be/about/publications%20de%20jean%20leurquin.html

Ingresado el 05 de noviembre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

19 de octubre de 2021

On the discrepancies between the taxonomic backbones and the current taxonomy of certain taxa

As expected, there are many cases of discrepancies between the used backbones and the long-accepted taxonomy of certain taxa. It couldn't be different.

This is my very own and debatable point of view: I think it is quite weird that we must wait for an external subject (though very authoritative and our present reference as taxonomic backbone for plants) to revise its taxonomic treatment of a certain taxon in order to have it here recognized as an independent taxon.
In some cases it is suggested to get in contact with that subject to ask its staff to revise their point of view on a given taxon. As regards, I think it would be very impolite to bring someone's attention to their (presumed) wrong taxonomic treatment of a certain taxon.

Definitively, I think that those who adjust the iNat taxonomy to that of a given backbone should take much more care in changing iNat taxonomy. Wouldn't it be worth taking a look at other taxonomic treatments before or to ask the point of view of those who are supposed to know that taxon well?

PS: I know which are the "rules" but, at the same time, I am deeply convinced that following overzealously the rules is not always the best.

Ingresado el 19 de octubre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de octubre de 2021

A message to all the free people

A message to all the free people:
what is happening in the world must be seen as a warning to everyone. If you accept safety in exchange for freedom, you will lose both.
Now, if you agree with this message and if you are allowed, try to make people open their eyes. Awareness and knowledge are what will make mankind pass through this crisis, not control and lies.
And if you have time, just make a prayer for all the free people of the world who are suffering for the shortage of freedom, it may sound little but it could be much.

Ingresado el 15 de octubre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

07 de septiembre de 2021

Key to species of subtribe Orobanchinae in the old world (Orobanche, Phelipanche and Boulardia) that are most represented in iNaturalist

Key to subtribe Orobanchinae
1 – A pair of additional bractleoles present on the lateral sides of the calyx. Bract much shorter than corolla. Corolla usually blue or violet, rarely pale blue or whitish. Inflorescence sometimes branched with branches arising from above or under the ground: Phelipanche
1 – Bractleoles absent. Bract shorter, as long as or longer than corolla. Corolla rarely blue or violet. Inflorescence never branched: 2
2 – Bracts denticulate on margins. Stem scales dense and broad. Calyx entire on upper side, subcampanulate. Corolla strongly narrowed and erect in lower half; constricted just below the middle and strongly galeate at apex; pinkish or whitish. Inflorescence many-flowered and dense. Stem thick. Western Mediterranean. Parasite to Rosmarinus spp.: Boulardia latisquama
2 – Bracts entire. Calyx usually divided into two halves, entire on upper side in few species. Corolla as above of differently shaped: Orobanche

OROBANCHE
1 – Glandular hairs on corolla with purple base (for plants apparently without such hairs or so much pigmented that such hairs are hard to be seen, see the following dichotomies; plants are sometimes deeply purplish-coloured so that the purple hairs are hardly visible): Group 1 (Grex Glandulosae + Curvatae)
1’ – Plants not as above: 2
2 – Non-flowering part of stem usually completely or mostly hidden underground. Inflorescence extremely dense. Corolla more or less straight, erecto-patent, almost enclosed in the bract, up to 18 mm long. Corolla lobes mucronate. Bracts suborbicular or broadly ovate. Parasite of Polygonaceae. From Middle East to central Asia: O. camptolepis (Grex Coerulescentes?)
2’ – Plants not as above: 3
3 – Corolla constricted towards or just below the middle, strongly curved (60° to 120°) towards the middle; usually blue or violet in upper half (somehow resembling Phelipanche) or, at least, at apex; often subglabrous with minute glandular hairs or glandular-pubescent or densely hairy up to lanate, with non-glandular hairs. Bracts shorter than corolla. Parasite mostly of Artemisia spp., alternatively growing on crops or on Lactuca spp.: Group 2 (Grex Coerulescentes)
3’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters: 4
4 – Corolla on the outside deep red or dark red or blackish-red in upper half or throughout or, alternatively yellowish with red stripes; red or light red on the inside (for yellow or whitish specimens see following dichotomies). Stigma yellow or reddish: 5
4’ – Corolla not coloured as above. Stigma yellow or orange or purple (rarely white or pinkish): 7
5 – Corolla blackish-red; strongly galeate at apex (with a distinct hump on upper side); more or less erect, at least in lower half; usually strongly broadened in upper half. Inflorescence lax and few-flowered. Parasite of Geranium spp. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia and Turkey: O. gamosepala (Group 3, Grex Galeatae)
5’ – Corolla not or, rarely, only slightly humped at apex; spreading or, rarely, erecto-patent; tubulose or inflate throughout. Inflorescence lax and few-flowered to dense and many-flowered. Parasite of Fabaceae: 6
6 – Corolla lower lip margin erose; upper lip spreading or erect. Calyx teeth triangular or lanceolate, usually less than ½ as long as corolla. Inflorescence from lax and few-flowered to very dense and many-flowered. Lanate hairs present or not. Stigma yellow or reddish. Stem slender to thick. Parasite of woody or, rarely, herbaceous Fabaceae: Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
6’ - Corolla lower lip margin erose; upper lip often erect. Calyx teeth subulate, usually more than ½ as long as corolla. Inflorescence many-flowered and usually lax, rarely rather dense. Lanate hairs absent. Stigma usually reddish, rarely yellow in yellow-coloured plants. Stem slender. Parasite of trees (Rhus, Fraxinus, Carpinus, etc.): O. laxissima (Group 8, Grex Speciosae)
6’’ – Corolla lower lip margin entire or nearly so; upper lip usually spreading or rarely slightly erect. Calyx teeth triangular or lanceolate, usually less than ½ as long as corolla. Inflorescence many-flowered, rather dense to very dense. Lanate hairs always present. Stigma yellow or, rarely, reddish. Stem thick. Parasite of woody or, rarely, herbaceous Fabaceae or Salvia spp.: Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
7 – Corolla curved throughout, erect and almost parallel to stem axis in lower third, then curved more or less at right angle towards the middle so more or less forming a 90° angle from base to apex;
7’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters: 9
8 – Corolla much narrower in lower 1/3 and then inflate to strongly inflate, otherwise slender or moderately inflate. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular up to triangular, never lanceolate. Inflorescence relatively lax to rather dense up to very dense. Stem often thick. Never parasitizing Fabaceae: Group 6 (Grex Curvatae)
8’ - Corolla abruptly narrowed at base and then moderately inflate to inflate. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular up to lanceolate. Inflorescence relatively lax to dense but never very dense. Stem slander to thick. Stigma yellow or orange or, rarely, red-purplish in deeply pigmented specimens. Parasite of Fabaceae: Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
9 – Corolla strongly geniculate towards base (forming an angle more or less at 1/3 - 1/4), then spreading or even slightly bent downwards; 15-25 mm long. Sepals filiform and almost as long as corolla or narrowly triangular and shorter. Inflorescence rather dense; comose (with long and narrow bracts overtopping the still underdeveloped flowers at apex) or not. Parasite of Eryngium spp. or Digitalis: 10
9’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters:11
10 – Sepals filiform, often almost as long as corolla. Bracts linear or narrowly triangular, longer than corolla and giving the inflorescence a comose appearance. Parasite exclusive of Eryngium. From the Iberian Peninsula to the Balcans; from Tunisia to Germany: O. amethystea subsp. amethystea (Group 7, Grex Minores)
10’ – Sepals narrowly triangular, much shorter than corolla. Bracts lanceolate, as long as corolla at most. Inflorescence not comose. Parasite of Digitalis. Corsica, France, Spain, Portugal and Morocco: O. amethystea subsp. castellana (Group 7, Grex Minores)
11 – Inflorescence extremely dense and many-flowered; strongly comose. Corolla yellowish or whitish, 16-22 mm long. Stigma yellow or yellowish. Stem extremely thick. Parasite of coastal Fabaceae (mainly Lotus spp.). Cádiz area, Algarve, Baixo Alentejo and northern Morocco: O. densiflora (whitish and yellowish forms; Group 4, Grex Cruentae)
11’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters: 12
12 – Corolla strongly galeate (with a distinct hump on upper side) at apex; strongly broadened towards apex, or inflate just beyond base; with upper calyx lip usually spreading or only slightly erect. Calyx often shorter than ½ of corolla; teeth triangular: 13
12’ – Corolla not or, rarely, only very slightly galeate at apex; with upper calyx teeth from spreading to strongly erect. Calyx longer or shorter than ½ of corolla length; teeth triangular or narrowly triangular or filiform: 15
13 – Corolla erecto-patent or erect in lower half; strongly broadened towards apex; never inflate in the rest; whitish, pinkish, pink, brownish or, rarely, yellowish. Stigma not strongly bent downwards. Plants never lanate. Parasite of Rubiaceae, Teucrium, Geranium and Medicago spp.: Group 3 (Grex Galeatae)
13’ – Corolla spreading; broadened towards apex or not; infalte or tubulose; of various colours including reddish or flesh-coloured or brownish or yellow. Plants lanate or not, even strongly so. Parasite of other species/families: 14
14 – Inflorescence dense, much longer than the above the ground part of stem. Stem thick. Corolla lips not erose (not minutely denticulate). Corolla usually not much broader towards apex (rarely so) but often inflate; reddish or flesh-coloured or brownish, rarely yellow. Stigma often strongly bent downwards, yellow. Plants at least with some lanate hairs, often strongly so. Parasite of woody Fabaceae: Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
14’ – Inflorescence dense or rather lax, if dense much longer than the above the ground part of stem. Stem slender or thick. Corolla lips erose (minutely denticulate). Corolla tubulose or inflate, almost straight to curved throughout, not gradually broadening towards apex; yellow. Stigma often strongly bent downwards, yellow. Plants rarely lanate. Parasite of woody and herbaceous Fabaceae: Group 3 (Grex Cruentae)
14’’ – Inflorescence usually rather lax, rarely dense. Stem slender. Corolla lips erose. Corolla rarely inflate, slightly curved throughout and gradually broadening towards apex; pure white or whitish or yellowish. Stigma often strongly bent downwards, pink or rarely orangish. Plants not lanate, always faintly coloured. Parasite of Salvia spp.: Orobanche alba subsp. major (Group 1, Grex Glandulosae)
15 – Corolla very narrow (3-4× as long as broad); distinctly curved on upper side and often bent downwards; yellow or yellowish. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow, then inflorescence comose. Parasite of Lotus cytisoides, mainly in coastal habitats: O. sanguinea (Group 4, Grex Cruentae)
15’ – Corolla broader (less than 3× as long as broad); yellow or yellowish or differently coloured. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow or shorter and broader, then inflorescence comose or not. Never parasitizing Lotus cytisoides: 16
16 – Corolla somehow inflate above the base; yellow; upper lip spreading or slightly bent upwards. Inflorescence rather dense (in O. gracilis often lax). Calyx often shorter than 1/2 of corolla length or longer; teeth triangular or broader. Parasite of woody or, rarely, herbaceous Fabaceae: 17
16’ – Corolla not inflate; yellow or differently coloured; upper lip spreading in few cases, usually bent upwards. Inflorescence often lax, in few cases rather dense. Calyx usually longer than 1/2 of corolla length; teeth narrowly triangular or filiform. Never parasitizing woody Fabaceae: 18
17 – Lower corolla lip erose (minutely denticulate). Corolla not lanate. Stem slender or thick: Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
17’ – Lower corolla lip entire or with just few small teeth. Corolla at least with some lanate hair. Stem thick: Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
18 – Corolla gradually curved throughout and broadening towards apex; pure white or whitish or yellowish. Stigma often strongly bent downwards. Plants always faintly coloured. Parasite of Salvia spp.: Orobanche alba subsp. major
18’ – Corolla tubulose, then trumpet-shaped or not at apex; coloured as above or more deeply coloured. Stigma not strongly bent downwards. Plants often, at least in part, more deeply coloured. Parasite of various families: 19
19 – Corolla straight or nearly so on lower side, not or just very slightly curved at base, straight and broadened or rarely very slightly curved on upper side; trumpet-shaped towards apex; white with or without purple stripes or much more deeply coloured being dark red, orange, yellow or purple. Calyx filiform in upper part and often nearly reaching corolla apex. Corolla up to 31 mm long. Parasite of herbaceous Fabaceae or woody species: Group 8 (Grex Speciosae)
19’ – Corolla distinctly curved at least at base, from distinctly curved to almost straight above, trumpet-shaped or not towards apex; never deeply coloured (mainly whitish or yellowish). Calyx filiform or broader. Corolla up to 28 mm long (O. kochii) or up to 22 mm long (Grex Minores). Parasite of various families: 20
20 – Corolla usually distinctly curved at base, then more or less straight above; erecto-patent; trumpet-shaped towards apex; whitish, yellowish or pinkish, (15-)20-28 mm long; never bearing long hairs. Inflorescence never very lax. Stem rather thick, never slender. Stigma yellow. Parasite of Centaurea or Echinops: O. kochii (incl. O. ritro; Group 6, Grex Curvatae?)
20’ - Corolla curved throughout or curved at base and then straight above; usually spreading, erecto-patent or slightly bent downwards in few cases; not trumpet-shaped towards apex; never deeply coloured (in O. pubescens sometimes deep violet in upper 2/3); in some species bearing long hairs. Inflorescence very lax to rather dense. Stem usually slender, very rarely rather thick. Stigma yellow or purple, rarely pinkish or white: Group 7 (Grex Minores)

Group 1 (Grex Glandulosae + Curvatae)
1 – Plants almost always very large with large and very dense inflorescence. Corolla curved throughout and more or less forming a 90° angle; yellow or brownish. Bract narrowly lanceolate to linear, longer than corolla. Parasite of Laserpitium siler: O. laserpiti-sileris (Grex Curvatae)
1’ – Plants small to very large with few-flowered to very dense inflorescence. Corolla not curved throughout or not forming a 90° angle; rarely yellow or brownish. Bracts lanceolate, shorter to longer than corolla. Parasite of Lamiaceae, spiny Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae subfamily Dipsacoideae: 3 (Grex Glandulosae)
2 – Plants usually with very dense inflorescence longer than stem. Stem usually thick. Stem scales dense. Bracts and calyx not dark purple. Parasite of Cephalaria. Caucasus and Transcaucasia: O. grossheimii (Grex Curvatae)
2’ – Plants rarely with dense inflorescence, usually shorter than or as long as stem. Stem usually thin, rarely thick. Stem scales sparse. Bracts and calyx dark purple or not. Parasite of Lamiaceae, spiny Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae subfamily Dipsacoideae: 3
3 – Corolla with a prominent hump on the upper side and distinctly flattened at gorge; bicoloured, dark red on upper half and yellow below. Calyx teeth filiform and longer than ½ of corolla. Stigma dark red. Parasite of Dipsacoideae. Greece, Turkey and Italy: O. baumanniorum
3’ – Corolla with or without a hump on upper side that is never prominent, nor flattened at gorge but often broadened; red or not but never bicoloured. Calyx teeth triangolar or, more rarely, filiform, usually shorter.Stigma from red to yellow. Parasite of Dipsacoideae or other families: 4
4 – Corolla background colour white, rarely light yellowish; without a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour; hairs with purple base often few. Bracts usually shorter than corolla. Calyx light-pinkish or whitish or yellowish. Stigma usually pink or purple, rarely yellow. Stem slender or rather thick. Plants medium- to large-sized with relatively many-flowered and rather dense inflorescence. Parasite of Salvia spp. and other Lamiaceae. From central Europe eastwards: O. alba. subsp. major
4’ – Corolla background colour white or yellowish or yellow or pink to deep pink or, rarely, red; with or without a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour; hairs with purple base usually dense, rarely few. Bracts shorter or longer than corolla. Calyx light-pinkish or whitish or yellowish or dark purple. Stigma pink or purple or yellow. Stem slender or rather thick. Plants small- to large-sized with few-flowered and sparse inflorescence to relatively many-flowered and rather dense inflorescence. Parasite of Lamiaceae (mostly Thymus), Cirsium, Carduus, Dipsacoideae: 5
5 – Corolla background colour yellowish, rarely whitish; usually with a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour. Bracts longer or shorter than corolla. Calyx usually blackish purple in well-pigmented plants and without a well-visible vein, well contrasting with corolla background colour; often bidentate. Stem slender or rather thick. Plants small- to large-sized with few- to many-flowered and usually rather dense to dense inflorescence. Parasite usually of Carduus and Cirsium or Dipsacoideae: 6
5’ – Corolla background colour whitish or pinkish, rarely yellowish or deep pink to deep red; without a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour. Bracts shorter than to as long as corolla. Calyx never blackish purple, with well-visible vein; rarely bidentate. Stigma usually purple, rarely yellow (especially in Eastern Mediterranean and from Caucasus eastwards). Stem slender. Plants usually small-sized with few-flowered inflorescence. Parasite of Lamiaceae (mostly Thymus spp.): O. alba subsp. alba
6 – Plants often medium- to large-sized with many-flowered and usually rather dense to dense inflorescence, less often with few-flowered inflorescence. Stem often rather thick. Stigma usually purple, rarely yellow in almost all-yellow plants. Calyx usually blackish purple in well-pigmented plants and without a well-visible vein, rarely almost all or all yellow with visible veins but only in all-yellow plants. Bracts from slightly shorter to longer than corolla. Corolla background colour yellowish, rarely whitish. Parasite usually of Carduus and Cirsium or Dipsacoideae. From the Iberian Peninsula to Russia: O. reticulata (incl. O. pallidiflora)
6 – Plants usually small-sized with few-flowered inflorescence. Stem slender. Stigma always yellow. Calyx pink to blackish purple, often with well visible vein. Bracts shorter than corolla. Corolla background colour whitish or yellowish or, rarely, purple in deeply pigmented plants. Parasite of Dipsacoideae. Austria, most of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece and Bulgaria: O. pancicii

Group 2 (Grex Coerulescentes)
1 – Plants lanate with long non-glandular hairs. Inflorescence usually dense, sometimes rather lax: O. coerulescens
1’ – Plants not lanate. Inflorescence never dense: 2
3 – Corolla 20-40 mm long; rather slender in basal part and broad in upper part being trumpet-shaped, erecto-patent or spreading; straight or geniculate towards the middle: O. amoena
3’ – Corolla 13-25 mm long; not trumpet-shaped in upper half; more or less geniculate or curved: 4
4 – Corolla slightly or distinctly bent downwards in upper half, usually forming a 90° to 120° angle, 13-18 mm long. Inflorescence often dense. Stem thick or slender. Parasite of wild Artemisia spp., rarely on other Asteraceae: O. cernua
4’ – Corolla slightly or distinctly bent downwards in upper half, usually forming a 90° to 120° angle, 16-22 mm long. Inflorescence rather lax. Stem slender. Parasite of crops (Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana spp. Solanum lycopersicon): O. cumana
4’’ – Corolla spreading in upper half, forming an angle well less than 90°, 15-19 mm long. Inflorescence often dense. Stem thick or slender. Parasite of Lactuca spp.: O. grenieri

Group 3 (Grex Galeate)
1 – Calyx entire on upper side: 2
1’ – Calyx divided up to base on upper side: 3
2 – Corolla erecto-patent; whitish or rarely yellowish. Stigma purplish. Parasite of Rubiaceae. Western Mediterranean: O. clausonis
2 – Corolla erect in lower half; dark purple or slightly paler. Stigma yellow. Parasite of Geranium spp. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey: O. gamosepala
3 – Corolla erect in lower half; dark purple or slightly paler. Parasite of Geranium spp. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey: O. gamosepala
3’ – Plants not as above: 4
4 – Calyx as long as 1/3 of corolla at most, divided in two broad teeth. Corolla whitish or yellowish, faintly coloured. Parasite of Rubiaceae: O. clausonis
4’ – Calyx longer. Corolla as above or deeply coloured. Parasite of Rubiaceae or other families: 5
5 – Corolla slightly curved on upper side, never geniculate at base nor straight in the middle, pinkish or whitish, more or less concolorous. Stigma purple. Inflorescence lax. Plants up to 50 cm long. Parasite of Rubiaceae: O. caryophyllacea
5’ – Corolla straight on upper side and geniculate at base; yellowish or light brown, rarely pinkish, more or less concolorous. Stigma purple.. Inflorescence lax. Plants usually shorter than 30 cm. Parasite of Teucrium spp.: O. teucrii
5’’ – Corolla straight on upper side and geniculate at base; often discolorous being yellowish or paler at base and pinkish or brownish in upper half. Stigma yellow. Inflorescence sometimes relatively dense. Plants 20-60 mm tall. Parasite of Medicago spp. (mostly M. sativa and M. falcata): O. lutea

Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
1 – Corolla very narrow (3-4× as long as broad); distinctly curved on upper side and often bent downwards; red or deep red at least in lower half (though yellow plants may be found). Stem slender. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow, then inflorescence comose. Parasite of Lotus cytisoides, mainly in coastal habitats: O. sanguinea
1’ – Corolla broader (less than 3× as long as broad); not as curved as above, never bent downwards; red or deep red or with some yellow part or withish-yellowish throughout. Stem thick or slender. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow or shorter and broader, then inflorescence comose or not. Parasite of Lotus spp. or other woody Fabaceae: 2
2 - Inflorescence extremely dense, comose. Corolla often yellowish or whitish, alternatively red or deep red. Stigma yellow or yellowish, alternatively red. Stem extremely thick. Parasite exclusively of coastal Fabaceae (mainly Lotus spp.). Cádiz area, Algarve, Baixo Alentejo and northern Morocco: O. densiflora
2’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters (in particular inflorescence is never extremely dense throughout, that is at least the lowermost flowers are rather sparse). Parasite of herbaceous or woody Fabaceae in coastal and inland environments: 3
3 – Inflorescence rather comose (that is bracts and stem scale are rather long and narrow); rather dense. Calyx teeth rather narrow, often filiform and nearly reaching corolla apex. Corolla usually deep red, alternatively red (in red-flowered plants), without lanate hairs and glossy. Parasite of herbaceous or woody (mostly small shrubs) Fabaceae. Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia: O. foetida
3’ – Inflorescence rather comose or not; lax or rather dense. Calyx teeth not as above and usually shorter than 2/3 of corolla length. Corolla mostly deep red, red or mostly yellow with red stripes (though yellow-flowered plants may be observed), dull and usually with lanate hairs. Parasite of woody (mostly large shrubs or small trees), or rarely herbaceous, Fabaceae: 4
4 – Inflorescence rather dense. Corolla mostly deep red or red with a whitish-yellowish patch at base (in red-flowered plants), very rarely yellow throughout; always with lanate hairs on upper side. Stem rather thick. Parasite of woody Fabaceae. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and southern Italy: O. variegata
4’ – Inflorescence often lax, not often rather dense. Corolla usually yellow with red or deep red stripes (yellowish with red stripes throughout in O. austrohispanica=O. gracilis) or red only in upper half/third, rarely red or deep red in upper 2/3, very rarely yellow throughout; rarely with lanate hairs on upper side. Stem usually slender, rarely rather thick. Parasite of woody Fabaceae, rarely on herbaceous Fabaceae. From western Mediterranean to Caucasus, northwards up to Germany and Poland: O. gracilis

Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
1 – Plants strongly lanate with long hairs on stem and bracts, lanate or not on corolla. Above the ground part of stem extremely short. Parasite of Salvia spp. Caucasus and Turkey: O. anatolica (incl. O. colorata)
1’ – Plants not strongly lanate or lanate but not with long hairs. Inflorescence not dense in lower part. Corolla flesh-coloured or light brown, rarely yellow or reddish. Above the ground part of stem rather long though shorter than inflorescence. Parasite of woody Fabaceae. CW-Euromediterranean area, Balkans and Turkey: O. rapum-genistae
1’’ – Plants not strongly lanate or lanate but not with long hairs. Inflorescence dense throughout. Corolla reddish, rarely yellow. Above the ground part of stem extremely short. Parasite of woody Fabaceae. Corsica and Sardinia: O. rigens

Group 6 (Grex Curvatae)
1 – Corolla almost curved throughout or just at base but not forming a right angle, spreading or erecto-patent. Parasite of Centaurea and Echinops: 2
1 – Corolla erect and almost parallel to inflorescence axis in lower third, then bent at almost right angle or forming a right angle throughout. Parasite of Centaurea or other species: 5
2 – Inflorescence never very dense and often shorter than stem. Stem never thick, often pink. Corolla often whitish, otherwise yellowish to pink, usually without very prominent veins. Bracts lanceolate and slightly shorter to, rarely, slightly longer than corolla. From Pyrenees to Caucasus. Parasite of Centaurea spp. and Echinops: O. kochii (incl. O. ritro)
2’ – Inflorescence usually dense to very dense and longer than stem. Stem usually thick, pink or not. Corolla whitish or more deeply coloured, often with prominent veins. Bracts lanceolate and slightly shorter to, rarely, slightly longer than corolla or narrowly triangular and much longer than corolla: 3
3 – Bracts narrowly triangular and much longer than corolla. Corolla never whitish but yellowish to deep pink. Parasite of Centaurea. Stem thick. Spain and SW France, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia: O. leptantha
3’ – Bracts lanceolate and slightly shorter to, rarely, slightly longer than corolla. Corolla yellowish or pale pink or more deeply coloured. Parasite of Cephalaria or Helleborus. Caucasus and Transcaucasia or southern Spain and Pyrenees: 4
4 – Corolla yellowish or pale pink. Parasite of Cephalaria. Caucasus and Transcaucasia: O. grossheimii
4’ – Corolla deeply coloured. Parasite of Helleborus. Southern Spain and Pyrenees: O. haenseleri
5 – Corolla moderately to strongly inflate and distinctly narrowed at base in a more or less conical part up to 1/5 as long as corolla; white to intensely coloured; 12-23 mm long. Bracts lanceolate, shorter or slightly longer than corolla. Stem scales usually rather few and well spaced. Inflorescence never very dense and longer than stem at the same time. Plants of open and sunny habitats (O. krylowii) or growing in half-shaded areas: 6
5 – Corolla rather slender to moderately inflate, slightly narrowed at base; never white; 12-30 mm long. Bract lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate or more or less linear, slightly shorter to much longer than corolla. Stem scales rather few and well spaced or numerous and dense. Inflorescence very dense or rather lax, in O. elatior and O. laserpiti-sileris usually longer than stem. Plants usually growing in open and sunny habitats: 9
6 – Corolla pure white or light yellowish, 12-25 mm long, longer than bract. Lower corolla lip almost entire of with just few small denticles. Plants glabrous or with short hairs. Parasite of Thalictrum or Aconitum lycoctonum. Russia and Albania or Alps and Pyrenees: 7
6’ – Corolla usually deeply coloured; moderately to rather inflated beyond base, 12-23 mm long, longer or shorter than bracts. Lower corolla lip erose. Plants always hairy, often with long hairs on stem and corolla. From Spain to Russia: 8
7 – Corolla pure white or light yellowish; abruptly inflated beyond base, up to 22 mm long and longer than bract. Lower corolla lip almost entire of with just few small denticles. Inflorescence rather lax, usually longer than stem. Plants glabrous to slightly hairy. Calyx shorter than ½ of corolla. Parasite of Thalictrum. Russia and Albania: O. krylowii
7’ – Corolla pure white or light yellowish; moderately to rather inflated beyond base, 18-25 mm long and longer than bract. Lower corolla lip almost entire of with just few small denticles. Inflorescence rather dense, shorter than stem. Plants hairy with short hairs. Calyx longer than ½ of corolla. Parasite of Aconitum lycoctonum. Alps and Pyrenees: O. aconiti-lycoctoni
8 – Corolla purplish with yellowish base, 21-23 mm long. Stem and corolla with short hairs. Parasite of Sambucus. Endemic to Italy: O. ebuli
8’ – Corolla entirely yellow or orangish or orangish-pink. stem and corolla with long hairs. Parasite of Salvia glutinosa or Berberis vulgaris or Petasites or Adenostyles: 9
9 – Corolla 12-23 mm long; upper lip more often spreading. Stamens usually densely hairy in lower half. Parasite of Salvia glutinosa: O. salviae
9’ – Corolla 12-20 mm long; upper lip more often spreading. Stamens usually loosely hairy in lower half. Parasite of Berberis vulgaris: O. lucorum
9’’ – Corolla 12-20 mm long; upper lip more often bent upwards. Stamens usually densely hairy in lower half. Parasite of Petasites spp. or Adenostyles spp.: O. flava
9 – Inflorescence usually longer than the above the ground part of stem, rarely shorter or as long as, usually dense to very dense. Bracts narrowly lanceolate or linear, longer than corolla. Stem scales numerous and dense. Corolla 15-26 mm long. Corolla lower lip lobes usually distinctly narrowed at base. Stem thick to very thick. Parasite of Centaurea or Laserpitium siler: 10
9’ – Inflorescence as long as the above the ground part of stem or shorter, from rather lax to dense. Bracts narrowly lanceolate or lanceolate, shorter or longer than corolla. Stem scales rather few and spaced. Corolla 12-25 mm long. Stem never very thick. Corolla lower lip lobes usually not or very slightly narrowed at base. Parasite of Apiaceae: 11
10 – Bracts as long as to slightly longer than corolla. Upper corolla lip not or slightly emarginate. Corolla tubular or only slightly inflate: Parasite of Centaurea, usually C. scabiosa. Central Europe: E. elatior
10’ – Bracts much longer than corolla. Upper corolla lip slightly to distinctly emarginate. Corolla slightly to distinctly inflate. Parasite of Centaurea, usually C. aspera. Spain and SW France, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia: O. leptantha
10’’ – Bracts as long as to slightly longer than corolla. Upper corolla lip slightly to strongly emarginate. Corolla somehow inflate: Parasite of Laserpitium siler or Laserpitium spp. Central Europe: O. laserpiti-sileris
11 – Corolla 18-25 mm long. Parasite of Cervaria rivini: O. alsatica
11’ – Corolla 12-18 mm long. Parasite of Seseli libanotidis: O. bartlingii

Group 7 (Grex Minores)
1A – Corolla usually curved at base and then more or less straight, rarely somehow curved throughout or slightly geniculate towards base, spreading or rarely erecto-patent; 10-18 mm long; never broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side, usually densely glandular-pubescent, rarely sparsely; usually white with purple stripes (yellow or yellowish in yellow-coloured specimens); upper lip bent upwards or spreading. Sepals narrowly triangular, rarely filiform and long. Stigma usually purple or pink, yellow in yellow-coloured plants, rarely white. Bracts lanceolate or, rarely, narrowly triangular, from shorter to, rarely, longer than corolla, brown or purple or yellow in yellow plants. Inflorescence usually lax, rarely rather dense; rarely comose. Parasite usually of Fabaceae but also of Asteraceae, Apiaceae and other families: O. minor
1B - Corolla somehow geniculate towards base (then somehow resembling O. artemisiae-campestris), more or less straight above, spreading or erecto-patent; 18-22 mm long; more or less broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side, usually densely glandular-pubescent, rarely sparsely; usually white with purple stripes; upper lip usually bent upwards, rarely spreading. Sepals narrowly triangular. Stigma usually purple. Bracts lanceolate, shorter to as along as corolla, brown or purple. Inflorescence rather dense; never comose. Parasite of coastal Asteraceae but likely also of other families (possibly growing on Plantago spp., Daucus carota s.l., Crithmum maritimum, etc.): O. litorea
1C – Corolla usually curved at base and then more or less straight, rarely somehow curved throughout or slightly geniculate towards base, spreading or rarely erecto-patent; 15-20 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; with rather long hairs on upper side (thus appearing lanate); usually white, often light yellowish at base and without or with faint purple stripes; upper lip usually bent upwards, rarely spreading. Sepals filiform and long. Stigma usually purple or pink (yellow?). Bracts narrowly triangular, often longer than corolla, yellow at base. Inflorescence often rather dense but also sometimes lax; never comose. Parasite exclusively of Picris spp., usually of P. hieracioides: O. picridis
1D – Corolla usually curved, rarely somehow geniculate towards base, then usually curved on upper side, rarely straight, spreading or rarely erecto-patent; 18-22 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side but just short glandular hairs; white or yellowish with purple stripes; upper lip usually bent upwards, rarely spreading. Sepals narrowly triangular and long, rarely somehow shorter in not well-developed plants. Stigma usually purple or pink (yellow?). Bracts lanceolate, usually shorter to as long as corolla, brown or purple or yellow at base. Inflorescence often rather dense but also sometimes lax; never comose. Parasite exclusively of Artemisia spp., usually of A. campestris: O. artemisiae-campestris
1E – Corolla usually curved, rarely somehow geniculate towards base, then usually curved on upper side, rarely straight, spreading or erecto-patent or even slightly bent downwards; 10-20 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; with very long hairs on upper side (thus appearing very lanate); usually purple in upper half or towards apex and whitish in lower half (yellow or yellowish in yellow-coloured specimens); upper lip usually spreading; rarely bent upwards. Sepals narrowly triangular or filiform and usually long. Stigma usually purple or pink, yellow in yellow-coloured plants, rarely white. Bracts lanceolate or narrowly triangular, from shorter to slightly longer than corolla, brown or purplish. Inflorescence lax or rather dense; never comose. Usually parasite of Asteraceae and Apiaceae but also of other families. Commoner in eastern Mediterrannean and becoming more and more rare westwards, absent in Portugal and western North Africa: O. pubescens
1F – Corolla usually curved, rarely somehow geniculate towards base, then straight or curved on upper side and spreading or even slightly bent downwards; 10-20 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, distinctly narrowed just below the apex (plants with more or less uniform corolla diameter are rarely found); without long hairs on upper side but just with sparse short glandular hairs (then usually appearing subglabrous); usually whitish or yellowish with purple stripes (completely yellow-flowered specimens are not rare); upper lip spreading or erect. Sepals narrowly triangular. Stigma usually yellow, extremely rarely purple in deeply pigmented plants. Bracts usually lanceolate and as long as corolla at most, very rarely narrowly triangular and longer than corolla. Inflorescence usually lax, rarely rather dense to very dense; extremely rarely comose, more often with bracts shorter than or as long as corolla. Parasite exclusively of Hedera spp.: O. hederae
1G – Corolla strongly geniculate towards base (forming an angle more or less at 1/3 - 1/4), then straight or slightly curved on upper side and spreading or even slightly bent downwards; 15-25 mm long; usually considerably broadened towards apex (then somehow trumpet-shaped), not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side, usually rather densely glandular-pubescent; white or yellowish or pinkish with purple or pink stripes. Sepals filiform and long in subsp. amethystea or narrowly triangular in subsp. castellana. Stigma usually purple, rarely yellow. Bracts narrowly triangular and longer than corolla in subsp. amethystea or lanceolate and shorter to longer than corolla in subsp. castellana. Inflorescence rather dense; often comose (with long and narrow bracts overtopping still underdeveloped flowers at apex). Parasite exclusively of Eryngium campestre or Digitalis: O. amethystea

1 – Corolla strongly geniculate towards base (forming an angle more or less at 1/3 – 1/4). Inflorescence rather dense. Parasite exclusively of Eryngium campestre or Digitalis: 2
1’ – Corolla never strongly geniculate towards base or curved throughout. Inflorescence lax to rather dense. Parasite of other families/species: 3
2 – Sepals filiform, often almost as long as corolla. Bracts linear or narrowly triangular, longer than corolla and giving the inflorescence a comose appearance. Parasite exclusive of Eryngium. From the Iberian Peninsula to the Balcans; from Tunisia to Germany: O. amethystea subsp. amethystea (Group 7, Grex Minores)
2’ – Sepals narrowly triangular, much shorter than corolla. Bracts lanceolate, as long as corolla at most. Inflorescence not comose. Parasite of Digitalis. Corsica, France, Spain, Portugal and Morocco: O. amethystea subsp. castellana (Group 7, Grex Minores)
3 – Corolla with a lanate appearance displaying long hairs on upper side. Sepals filiform and often almost reaching corolla apex. Parasite of Picris or of Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Geranium etc.: 4
3’ – Corolla subglabrous or with short hairs, never appearing lanate. Sepals filiform and often almost reaching corolla apex or broader and shorter: 5
4 – Corolla whitish or light yellowish, often yellow at base; often with very faint purple stripes; with moderately long hairs on upper side. Parasite of Picris: O. picridis
4’ – Corolla purple on upper side, extremely rarely yellow throughout; with very long hairs on upper side. Parasite of Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Geranium etc.: O. pubescens
5 – Corolla usually subglabrous; almost always distinctly restricted just below the gorge. Parasite of Hedera: O. hederae
5’ – Corolla distinctly hairy; never restricted just below the gorge. Never parasitizing Hedera: 6
6 – Corolla 12-18 mm long. Inflorescence few-flowered and very lax to rather dense. Calyx teeth usually triangular and more or less as long as ½ corolla, rarely filiform and longer. Plants usually short- to medium-sized, rarely taller. Parasite of various families/species but never of Artemisia campestris: O. minor
6’ – Corolla 14-22 mm long. Inflorescence rather dense. Calyx teeth usually triangular and longer than ½ corolla, rarely filiform. Plants medium- to large-sized, rarely shorter. Parasite exclusively of Artemisia campestris: O. artemisiae-campestris
6’’ - Corolla 14-22 mm long. Inflorescence rather dense to dense. Calyx teeth triangular and more or less as long as ½ corolla. Plants usually short-sized. Parasite of coastal plants (Anthemis maritima, Plantago spp., Daucus carota s.l., Crithmum maritimum, etc…): O. litorea

Group 8 (Grex Speciosae)
1 – Inflorescence few-flowered, lax. Corolla background colour usually white or mostly blue to dark violet, especially towards apex. Corolla slightly curved on upper side; comparatively not much broadening towards apex. Flowers erecto-patent, rarely spreading. Stigma purple. Parasite of Fabaceae. Caucasus, Iran, Russia and Turkey: O. owerinii
1’ – Inflorescence usually many-flowered in well-developed plants (though few-flowered plants are sometimes found), lax or dense. Corolla background colour usually white, often with narrow and relatively faint violet stripes in the rest but sometimes completely white, rarely yellowish at base; rarely curved on upper side, more often straight and comparatively much broadening towards apex. Flowers spreading or rarely erecto-patent. Stigma purple or orange. Parasite of Fabaceae, often on cultivated plants (e.g. Vicia faba, Pisum sativum subsp. sativum). From western Mediterranean to Iran: O. crenata
1’’ – Inflorescence usually many-flowered in well-developed plants (though few-flowered plants are sometimes found), lax or, very rarely, relatively dense. Corolla background colour usually intense being yellow, orange or reddish, rarely whitish or yellowish; straight or slightly curved on upper side. Flowers erecto-patent, rarely spreading. Stigma purple or orange or yellow. Parasite of woody species (Betulaceae, Oleaceae, Fagaceae). Caucasus, Transcaucasia and NE Turkey: O. laxissima

PHELIPANCHE
1 – Plants distinctly lanate with relatively long hairs. Parasite of Artemisia spp. or Moricandia nitens (possibly also on other Brassicaceae): 2
1’ – Plants minutely pubescent to hirsute but never lanate: 3
2 – Inflorescence very dense, long and much longer than stem. Calyx teeth subulate to narrowly triangular. Parasite of Moricandia nitens (possibly also on other Brassicaceae). Israel: P. daninii
2’ – Inflorescence rather lax to dense, never very long, from shorter to much longer than stem. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular. Parasite of Artemisia spp. Central Europe to Eurasia: P. caesia
3 – Inflorescence dense to very dense, often branched: 4
3’ – Inflorescence never very dense, rarely branched: 11
4 - Calyx longer than ½ of corolla and up to 4/5; calyx teeth 2 to 3-times as long as calyx tube, filiform. Parasite of Apiaceae: P. schultzii
4’ - Calyx teeth shorter than as above and/or differently shaped. Parasite of other families: 5
5 - Corolla 25-35 mm long; very broadened in upper half; lilac or light pink, rarely violet; erecto-patent. Corolla lower lip with pointing downwards lobes. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular; as long as or longer than calyx. Parasite of Artemisia spp.: P. arenaria
5’ – Corolla 12-30 mm long, never broadened in upper half and rather thin throughout, coloured as above or much darker. Calyx teeth from subulate to triangular, from shorter to just slightly longer than tube. Pasite of Artemisia spp. (P. purpurea subsp. bohemica) or other families/species: 6
6 – Inflorescence long. Corolla dark purple; 15-20 mm long. Stem thin. Plants sometimes branched. Calyx teeth subulate. Parasite exclusively of Bituminaria bituminosa: P. lavandulacea (incl. subsp. trichocalyx)
6’ – Inflorescence comparatively shorter. Corolla lilac or light pink or light blue; 15-30 mm long. Stem rather thin or thick. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular to triangular. Parasite of Centaurea spp. or Artemisia spp.: 7
7 – Calyx teeth distinctly longer than calyx tube and up to twice and long as calyx tube. Parasite of Eryngium spp. Near East: P. heldreichii
7’ – Calyx teeth subequal to calyx tube to slightly longer. Parasite of other species: 8
8 – Corolla shorter than 21 mm: 9
8’ – Corolla longer than 21 mm and up to 30 mm long: 10
9 – Corolla thin; pale-coloured and with faint venation; shorter than 21 mm. Stigma white. Stem thick; yellowish; often branched. Parasite of Centaurea spp.: P. portoilicitana
9’ – Corolla not thin; pale-coloured and with distinct venation; shorter than 18 mm. Stigma yellow. Stem not thick; sometimes branched. Parasite of Salvia rosmarinus: P. rosmarina
10 – Corolla usually not pale-coloured and with distinct venation; 20-30 mm long. Stem never branched. Parasite of Artemisia spp. Central Europe to Spain: P. purpurea subsp. bohemica
10’ – Corolla usually pale blue and with faint venation; 19,5-27 mm long. Stem branched or not. Parasite of Launaea arborescens and other Asteraceae. Canary Islands: P. gratiosa
11 – Calyx not longer than ¼ of corolla. Corolla 20-37 mm long, not humped on upper side. Inflorescence lax and usually few-flowered. Calyx teeth triangular, from slightly shorter to slightly longer than tube. Parasite usually of cultivated plants: P. aegyptiaca
11’ – Calyx longer than as above. Corolla 12-35 mm long, humped or not on upper side. Inflorescence lax or dense, few-flowered to many-flowered. Calyx teeth triangular or narrower, shorter to longer than tube. Parasite rarely of cultivated plants: 12
12 – Inflorescence long. Corolla dark purple. Calyx teeth subulate. Parasite exclusively of Bituminaria bituminosa: P. lavandulacea (incl. subsp. trichocalyx)
12’ – Inflorescence rather short. Corolla never dark purple. Calyx teeth subulate or triangular. Plants never parasitizing Bituminaria bituminosa: 13
13 – Corolla 20-35 mm long, very broadened in upper half: 14
13’ – Corolla 12-30 mm, not broadened in upper half: 15
14 – Corolla 25-35 mm long; lilac or light pink, rarely violet; erecto-patent. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular to subulate; much longer than tube. Stem yellowish. Parasite of Artemisia spp.: P. arenaria
14’ – Corolla 20-30 mm long; usually violet, rarely paler; usually spreading. Calyx teeth triangular, from slightly shorter than to slightly longer than tube. Stem, at least in part, purple-flushed. Parasite of Achillea spp.: P. purpurea subsp. millefolii
15 – Corolla 20-30 mm; slightly humped on upper side or not humped; usually with very distinct venation. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular to triangular; from slightly shorter than to slightly longer than tube. Stem always from partly purple-flushed to entirely purple, never completely yellowish. Parasite of Achillea spp. or Artemisia spp.: P. purpurea subsp. purpurea
15’ – Corolla less than 20 mm long (sometimes up to 22 mm long in P. mutelii); not umped or distinctly humped on upper side; usually with a rather faint venation. Calyx teeth from subulate to triangular; from slightly shorter than to longer than tube. Stem purplish or completely yellowish. Never parasitizing Achillea spp. or Artemisia spp.: 16
16 – Corolla with a distinct hump on upper side; spreading or erecto-patent: 17
16’ – Corolla without a distinct hump on upper side, more or less gradually broadened up to apex; erecto-patent: 18
17 – Calyx teeth as long as or shorter than tube, triangular. Flowers erecto-patent. Stem often branched. Corolla light blue to whitish. Parasite of cultivated plants, possibly on wild plants?: P. ramosa
17’ – Calyx teeth longer than tube, subulate to narrowly triangular. Flowers spreading. Stem rarely branched. Corolla blue, rarely light blue or whitish. Parasitizing wild plants: P. nana
18 – Stigma yellow. Calyx teeth triangular. Bracts ovate. Corolla 12-18 mm long; usually pale-coloured, rarely somehow darker. Inflorescence sometimes much longer than stem. Parasite of Salvia rosmarinus. Mediterranean region from Portugal to northern Balkans and Algeria: P. rosmarina
18’ – Stigma white. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular. Corolla 15-20(-22) mm long; rarely pale-coloured. Inflorescence never much longer than stem. Parasite of Asteraceae and other families, rarely also on cultivated plants. Canary Islands, southern Spain, north Africa, Sicily, Malta, Balkans, Greece, Caucasus and Crimea (possibly also elsewhere): P. mutelii

Selected references
Aksoy, E.; Arslan, Z.F.; Öztürk, N. 2013. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel: A new record as a parasitic weed on apricot root in Turkey. Afr. J. Agricult. Res. 8(29): 4001-4006.
Beck von Mannagetta, G. 1890. Monographie der Gattung Orobanche. Bibliotheca Botanica 19: 1-275.
Beck von Mannagetta, G. 1930. Orobanchaceae. In: Engler A, ed. Das Pflanzenreich, vol IV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 1-348.
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. 2002. A propósito de algunas Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) del noroeste peninsular y de su tratamiento en Flora iberica vol. XIV (2001). Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 1: I-IV+1-44
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. 2003. Más, a propósito dealgunas Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) del norte y este de la Península Ibérica. Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 2: 1-45.
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Schneeweiss, G.M. 2005. Más, a propósito de algunas Orobanche L. y Phelipanche Pomel (Orobanchaceae) del oeste del Paleártico. Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3:1-71.
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Schneeweiss, G.M. 2008. Más, a propósito de algunas Phelipanche Pomel, Boulardia F. W. Schultz y Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) del oeste del Paleártico. Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6:1-127.
Carlón, L.; G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. 2015. What is and What is understood by Orobanche foetida Poir., Voy. Barbarie 2: 195-196? Flora Montiber. 59: 128-134
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Schneeweiss, G.M. Annotated checklist of host plants of Orobanchaceae. Liérganes, Cantabria, Spain: [accessed: 08 September 2021]. Available from: http://www.farmalierganes.com/flora/angiospermae/orobanchaceae/Host_Orobanchaceae_Checklist.htm.
Domina, G.; Raimondo, F.M. 2009. A new species of Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) from Israel. Fl. Medit. 19: 185-188.
Foley, M.J.Y. 1996. Orobanche clausonis Pomel (Orobanchaceae) in the Iberian peninsula. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 54(1): 319-326.
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16 de julio de 2021

A prayer for the world in its darkest hour

A prayer for the world in its darkest hour.
May wisdon be regained by our leaders and by people.
May friendship reign among mankind.
May the lust of power of man over man dry out from its deepest roots.

Ingresado el 16 de julio de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario