Archivos de diario de febrero 2019

11 de febrero de 2019

Summary of Lichen discussion from iSpot.

From -which is now deleted.

Southern African Lichens
3 January 2015 - 4:19PM By Tony Rebelo

I would dearly love a project on lichens of southern Africa.
But how do we achieve this? There are lots of genera scattered among fungi: how to collect them (clearly iSpot does not allow more than 1 scientific name, let alone almost 300 genera).
And please dont suggest a tag: tagging thousands of lichen observations is not going to work. One option is via the dictionary (they are flagged in our dictionary, but that data are not in iSpot!!)
Some information at - e.g. lists of Lichen genera
All Lichens
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In Sept 2017, iSpot was upgraded and the site and projects devastated. They following is a summary of what was salvaged.


I know that there are lots of
5 January 2015 - 11:04PM Jonathan
I know that there are lots of lichenised fungi, but if there are a few top-level groups then you can use these. That's all I can suggest.

Top level groups
5 January 2015 - 11:18PM Tony Rebelo
But the taxonomy filter only allows one taxon. So one cannot select several families. Nor could you removed subtaxa within a taxon if they are not licheniferous.
The southern African community has migrated to iNaturalist at with all its data in early 2018. Beware that southern African data and identifications on this site are out of date and no longer updated.

What would work
11 January 2015 - 1:54PM Tony Rebelo
Is if I could load all the genera into a file and put it in the taxonomy filter box.
Any idea if this is possible?

A tribute to Marlandza
11 January 2015 - 8:27PM Tony Rebelo
Marlandza - in the days before projects, when she single-handedly tried to get a Lichen project going using tags:
& empty:
Alas: most months she blew her cap and had to spend the last few days without internet.
Thanks Marlandza: let us see how it plays out in the future!

Thanks Tony
16 January 2015 - 2:34PM marlandza
Lets see what we can do - ZA lichens are really something to spend time on -
At least I don't have cap problems now.
"'n Boer maak 'n plan" - do we have a Plan B?
Have mailed you something.

Taxonomical links
5 May 2015 - 9:08AM Tony Rebelo
A fuller taxonomy is available below, but here are taxonomical links to Marlandza's tags above.
(remember you can see the species for each genus by clicking on childs (those in blue have observations), and you can also go up the taxonomy tree by clicking on the name in the taxonomy-strip):

Note that you can bookmark the taxonomy url and just add the taxon to get all the observations for a taxon immediately using the "taxonomy link": bookmark this:
and just add your taxon (any valid scientific name or any rank)
substitute CoL or UKSI for the other two dictionaries (global and UK, respectively).
so Note you can also surf lichens using the following and just like the "taxonomy link" there is a browsing/surfing link - bookmark this
and just add your taxon (any valid scientific name or any rank)
substitute Chile, Hong-Kong or UK-and-Ireland for the other communities respectively

The species surfer
22 May 2015 - 9:15AM Tony Rebelo
The species surfer (browser) allows us to summarize our southern African Lichen data currently as:

Thanks Tony
5 May 2015 - 3:42PM marlandza
I've used these before, sometimes useful but also got quite confused - maybe I just need practice. Something for the wish-list here "can we take out those that do not have an firm ID?"

And please dont suggest a tag: tagging thousands of lichen obser
3 May 2015 - 7:15PM miked
Hi Tony how about tagging the lichen observations? At least the ones that don't have an ID. This is to enable an expert in lichens to see them all together rather than fighting their way through all the fungi. This seems to work quite well with bryophytes as the bryophyte experts can keep an eye on the bryophytes club project which they set up and which collects uk bryophytes using various means including tags of unidentified species (so long as the observer adds moss, liverwort, bryophyte or whatever other tags are being collected). At least this is how I think it works.
Could suggest to the SA people that they add lichen or bryophyte or whatever other similar group to the tag list to help the experts in those areas?
Expect you have thought about this and there is some reason why it would not work, is it just that there are so many lichen observations on already that don't have tags or name? Perhaps they could be picked out with an unidentified filter and tag added?

Why use tags for Bryophytes??
3 May 2015 - 7:51PM Tony Rebelo
Bryophytes are a taxonomical group - just ID them as Bryophyta and your experts will find them either with a project with that taxonomical filter, or a filter from the community page. No need for tags a all.
But Lichens are not a good taxonomical group. And getting dozens of people to add tags is not going to work. And even as curator, I wont spend lots of time adding tags.
We need a better solution!!
One possibility is to add a synonym "Lichen" to the dictionary. Then anyone can label it is "taxon" Lichen. And it can link to all families and genera of fungi that have Lichens.
But I need to think more about this.
The southern African community has migrated to iNaturalist at with all its data in early 2018. Beware that southern African data and identifications on this site are out of date and no longer updated.

there is a need to tag them
3 May 2015 - 9:00PM miked
there is a need to tag them if you want them to be easier for experts to find e.g. in uk most 'fungi and lichens' are fungi and the vast majority of 'plants' are higher plants so experts in lichens or liverworts would have to trawl through thousands of observations to find the few unidentified ones they might help with. however if they were tagged and project for lichens or bryophytes then just look at those projects and most of the relevant observations are collected together (so long as user has tagged them with lichens or bryophytes).
I know this is far from ideal as it relies on users to do some tagging but it is something that works now and does not rely on input from programmers.

@ miked from marlandza now living in London
3 May 2015 - 9:45PM marlandza
I'd be happy to do anything to get experts to help with our SA Lichens -
Have thought and thought....
And selfishly, I'd be happy to do anything to get the ball rolling - could we do something simple to start . Like the terms that Dobson uses for his keys (even if they're not always the same) Lichen-foliose; lichen-fructose etc.
Would we be able to get drop-down suggested keys if we started with the term Lichen - much like the species names?
Tony's right in some ways, but not starting is also wrong. At one time I was recording lichen finds by other iSpotters and was getting a pattern of some who were posting regularly. So have links to their finds or at least their names
miked - If you suggested some meaningful terms that I could use to start (bearing in mind that I have a mind like a butterfly, but will come back to the same spot eventually). Then I could add the keys to my finds and then slowly try to see if others would follow.
Stopped thinking for now - brain has gone into overload.
Meantime thanks for offering to help.
PS have tried other ways of getting help - this is a link to a Picasa album I set up

marlandza, Not sure what you
4 May 2015 - 10:01AM miked
Not sure what you are suggesting, is it two things 1. how to get lichen experts in general (wherever in the world) to have a look at the ZA lichens, and 2. how to make a key at least to some of the main groups?
Quite a lot of lichens do have a worldwide distribution, recently an expert in arctic lichens helped me with a species from New Zealand since that species has a worldwide distribution but is nowhere common. So getting any expert to help may be useful. However 'experts' tend to define themselves by region and be wary of suggesting names for things outside their region as there could be other taxa there that they don't know about. I still think that a lichen project in general and possibly separate ones for UK, ZA, chile etc would be a start so long as the lichen observations can get tagged with 'lichen'. I have occasionally commented on Tony's lichens from Chile or ZA when I have seen that they look similar to ones from UK when I have been looking through global 'fungi and lichens' but it would be much easier if all the lichens were in one place in a project.
Presumably you have seen the iSpot keys and the method of creating them, there are some to lichens but rather specific usage in air pollution survey. I am not sure how well this would work for lichens in general as they often have so few easily observable characters to work with but it might be possible to chop them up into some of the groups you mention and perhaps some other artificial groups or obvious species/genera. This would not be a 'scientific' key but perhaps a beginners key to pick out some obvious taxa and get people interested. I suspect some taxonomists might regard this as a bad idea and I am not sure how wise it is myself. But if you could do the Lichen-foliose; lichen-fructose etc. and then within each of these groups divide again to show a few of the clearly defined taxa and 'the rest' then this might be a starting point and someone might then go on and develop the sections further.
In general it may be a good idea to look at the british bryological soc website and their ID book as it covers the UK bryophytes, hundreds of taxa but only using terms that an ordinary person would understand rather than the UK lichen guide (Dobson) that requires constant reference to glossary (at least by me!) to get anywhere.

KEYS, TAGS and other things
4 May 2015 - 4:38PM marlandza

  1. how to get lichen experts in general (wherever in the world) to have a look at the ZA lichens, -
    There has been some valuable input from international experts - but as you say it's sometimes difficult to give a firm ID from a photo.

  2. how to make a key at least to some of the main groups?
    A new problem for me has been that my UK finds are getting muddled with the ZA finds -
    which makes me think I could start with tagging LICHENS-UK and LICHENS-ZA - see what works for me and then if this makes sense we could do others.
    I see in the UK they are often separated - for example churchyard likens and another Scottish Atlantic Woodland. Surely we can do this - Tony should be able to assist - the Knysna Forest and other forest lichens could be separated. Then we have the Atlantic Coast and the Namaqualand inland area.

If going down the project
4 May 2015 - 5:11PM miked
If going down the project route then you just need to tag the observation 'lichen' and have a project for UK lichens and another one for ZA ones or any other country. In projects you can define the geographic area just using a polygon on the map. for example
You can define smaller areas but churchyards and Scottish atlantic woodlands would be too difficult to define just with polygons.

multiple polygons
4 May 2015 - 6:43PM Tony Rebelo
You can have very many small polygons and map all the forests.
At a slightly larger scale:
& (this one defeats iSpot to display the mapped areas - see the map tab to see them)

who is going to tag?
4 May 2015 - 8:56PM Tony Rebelo
There are thousands of Lichens on iSpot southern Africa: who is going to tag them?

THOUGHT, and this may not work BUT...
2 November 2015 - 3:11AM marlandza
I've started to duplicate my ZA liken finds on Flickr - where I can create albums for my favourite locations and by using tags have more than one species in an observation.
I've created a GROUP for southern African Lichens and have joined a global group named LICHENS.
Early days yet, but this may get exposure that we've not been getting on iSpot.
My first entries have been "just dumped" but I'm hoping to refine them and add a link to iSpot where appropriate.
I've defined two small areas so far - Lichens of Rondebosch Common and another of Noordhoek .
If it works for me, it would be nice if we could do this for the "forest" lichens of the Garden route.
Also the Namaqualand and Northern Cape could be meaningful for (to) me.
PS My Flickr name is Marigold Wilderness

RE: If going down the project
27 July 2017 - 3:17PM marlandza
Hope you find this mike
My favourite lichens are the ones that the iSpot calls Neofuscelia which may be causing some confusion.
But now 2017 and a new iSpot and a current list of LICHEN PROJECTS
Lichens: Southern Africa :
Lichens: Acarospora:
Lichens: Caloplaca : Southern Africa: :
Lichens: Cladonia: Southern Africa:
Lichens: Gigi's SA Finds:
Lichens: Marland's SA Finds:
Lichens: Nicky van B's Finds:
Lichens: Pseudocyphellaria: Southern Africa:
Lichens: Ramalina:
Lichens: Southern Cape:
Lichens: Teloschistes: Southen Africa: :
Lichens: Usnea:
Lichens: Xanthomaculina :
Lichens: Xanthoparmelia: Southern Africa:
Lichens: Xanthoria: Southern Africa:
4 May 2015 - 7:08PM miked
have set up this project, it has mainly UK lichens at the moment. Might try to get lichen people to look at this project as it should have mostly things they are interested in.
Mainly UK at moment because I am using the tag 'lichen' and lots of uk lichens are already tagged with this. I could add more tags if they would pick up more lichens, can you suggest any? Note this is the global lichen project at the moment hoping that lichen people from whatever part of the world might have a look at it.

"who is going to tag them?"
4 May 2015 - 9:53PM marlandza
I've started with mine - LICHEN-ZA and then "the region" would be of interest I think. Especially where there are places that might have a tourist potential.
"Visiting South Africa? Wonder what areas are lichen-rich." They could look at what we've posted, maybe do some homework and have a great holiday lichen-hunting.
Please advise if you think I should do the tags differently.
HOWEVER - There are some people who have posted lichens willy-nilly to iSpot - with not much thought as to how these could be retrieved in a meaningful way - many of these won't be identifiable due to the quality of the image - you win some, you lose some.

Lichen rich areas!
4 May 2015 - 10:43PM Tony Rebelo
The West Coast, especially towards the Richtersveld and the southern Namib are especially rich in Lichens. For starters why not get a copy of
V. Worth. Lichens of the Namib Desert Demasius

I have added LICHEN-ZA to the
4 May 2015 - 11:11PM miked
I have added LICHEN-ZA to the project but it has not picked up many more lichens in ZA. Most of the ones shown there just have lichen in the tag. It is probably ok just to use 'lichen' and then use the map to zoom in on the area of interest or make another project and define the area on the map.

Thanks miked
5 May 2015 - 12:16AM marlandza
This will help with your project. And my problem of lichens fund in both hemispheres. I'll keep using that tag.
Very confused by Tony's information-overload.

Its simple
5 May 2015 - 12:30AM Tony Rebelo
Southern African Lichens are now displaying here, without needing tags.
or to summarize the current situation:

Numbers games
5 May 2015 - 8:45AM marlandza
Of the 907 how many have been ID'ed?
Then of the 578 and growing, there are probably quite a lot more that have been ID and commented upon - I know from my posts to iSpot UK.

5 May 2015 - 9:26AM Tony Rebelo
All have been ID'd otherwise they would not be in the project - the filter relies on the ID!!
There are others that are not IDd yet: they wont show.
All three projects will grow, but more in proportion to contributors than taggers.
I think I have shown below that your tags are defunct: move over to the taxonomy: it is far more powerful.

Because tagging them is so ridiculous
5 May 2015 - 12:25AM Tony Rebelo
Because tagging them is so ridiculous, I have changed this project.
Now anyone can make any Lichen link to this project, by simply IDing them as Lecanoromycetes. The experts can then assign them to any other groups where they are wrong.
The other groups are listed below. Unfortunately at this stage iSpot does not allow multiple taxa (like it does with groups, habitats, tags and users).
If it did then we could have "Lecanoromycetes, Arthoniales, Baeomycetales, Candelariales, Lecideales, Lichinomycetes, Mucorales, Mycocaliciales, Orbiliales, Pleosporales, Pyrenulales, Trypetheliales, Umbilicariales, Verrucariales" to define 99% of Lichens.
The project will also accept the ID of English Name "Lichen"
Now that is a far more elegant solution than putting in tags all over the place. But it does mean that when properly identified (with a common name) the observations will leave the project. (but not this project)

5 May 2015 - 12:28AM marlandza
I've been IDing as LICHEN the unknown's for ages
so how does this link to the project.
Confused by the reference to Common name - if we don't have an ID how will we have a common name?
So what is the aim of the new project?

5 May 2015 - 12:34AM Tony Rebelo
The ID of Common Name = "Lichen" is a valid ID.
This project will collect them.
How? Because that is how the filter is set up!
Anyone can make the ID!! No need for tags, or for trying to get someone else to tag.
And if you know the Scientific name (to order, family, genus, species), it will still stay in this project 95% of the time. (The other 5% are the smaller Lichen groups which this project cannot cope with at present).

Either way
5 May 2015 - 8:40AM marlandza
one still need to go back to update the LICHEN in common name or tag -
My problem is with my own lichen finds from UK and ZA - the ZA ones - even with the name as LICHEN - this has not been agreed. There aren't enough people looking at them, never mind the experts!
With the tags I'll be able to separate my finds when looking back. This problem has come with iSpot becoming global.

You are welcome to tag and organize your own
5 May 2015 - 9:20AM Tony Rebelo
You are welcome to tag and organize your own. Who will do everyone elses?
But I reiterate what I said two years ago: Using the taxonomy is far more powerful and useful than tags. With the taxonomy you can look at children, go up and down the taxonomic tree (parents and children) with a click.
And anyone can contribute until an expert pops in. We do have experts look in occasionally. And they do make a huge difference.
You may want to read this:

(end of part 1)

Publicado el febrero 11, 2019 08:55 TARDE por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Summary of Lichen discussion from iSpot. II

Another year - another thought
22 February 2017 - 4:53PM marlandza
I did a comparison test this week - just to see if the problem is not merely apathy within the local community
So I photographed two common lichens in London (31 reads) and one agreement (40 reads todate) and one agreement
Then comparing a SA post (7 reads) and the agreement was from GeorgeG (Isle of Wight)
Nicky Van Blerk must be thanked for setting up a number of projects
This is the one for Xanthoria which I found by Googling "xanthoria parietina"
Checking if the project is being appreciated I found one of mine, posted on iSpot in Feb last year (84 reads after a year). It has still not elicited a response
The OPAL project was anmazing
Especially OPAL for schools
Any thoughts?

RE: And please dont suggest a tag:
27 July 2017 - 3:02PM marlandza
Things have changed over the years miked;
I've been adding the tag LICHEN-ZA on all my lichen posts - this was don at the request of someone in the UK who was hoping set up a project of WORLD lichens.
ALSO Nicky vB has created a number of really great LIchen projects and at the moment we have a list of lichen projects: think I'll add it below

6 May 2015 - 8:06PM Tony Rebelo
This project is now only to the largest group of Lichen, the Lecanoromycetes. But that is the vast majority of Lichens anyway.
The following are not included and so linked here. These are most of the groups that have Lichen forms, although some have only a few lichenized forms, or a small proportion of lichenized forms:
(observations / surf species)
Arthoniales observations or surf species of Arthoniales (Important Group)
Baeomycetales observations or surf species of Baeomycetales Candelariales observations or surf species of Candelariales Lecideales observations or surf species of Lecideales Lichinomycetes observations or surf species of Lichinomycetes Mucorales observations or surf species of Mucorales Mycocaliciales observations or surf species of Mycocaliciales Orbiliales observations or surf species of Orbiliales Pleosporales observations or surf species of Pleosporales Pyrenulales observations or surf species of Pyrenulales Trypetheliales observations or surf species of Trypetheliales Umbilicariales observations or surf species of Umbilicariales (Important Group)
Verrucariales observations or surf species of Verrucariales (Important Group)
You can link to the lower levels of Lecanoromycetes here:
Acarosporales observations or surf species of Acarosporales Agyriales observations or surf species of Agyriales Lecanorales observations or surf species of Lecanorales Ostropales observations or surf species of Ostropales Peltigerales observations or surf species of Peltigerales Pertusariales observations or surf species of Pertusariales Rhizocarpales observations or surf species of Rhizocarpales Teloschistales observations or surf species of TeloschistalesOr to the higher levels of Lecanoromycetes here:
Acarosporomycetidae observations or surf species of Acarosporomycetidae Ostropomycetidae observations or surf species of Ostropomycetidae Lecanoromycetidae observations or surf species of LecanoromycetidaeSee notes here on how to surf these as well

Cool surfer feature:
18 December 2015 - 3:30PM Tony Rebelo

You can put multiple groups into the surfer: so to see all lichen groups click here
All lichensor in full:

Tony, can I put a link to
5 May 2015 - 9:39AM miked
Tony, can I put a link to this discussion in the lichens of the world project and especially point out the section shown below that you have produced. I still think that the project is useful especially for the unidentified lichens and it also allows comments.
'Note that you can bookmark the taxonomy url and just add the taxon to get all the observations for a taxon immediately using the "taxonomy link": bookmark this:
and just add your taxon (any valid scientific name or any rank)
substitute CoL or UKSI for the other two dictionaries (global and UK, respectively).
Note you can also surf lichens using the following
and just like the "taxonomy link" there is a browsing/surfing link - bookmark this
and just add your taxon (any valid scientific name or any rank)
substitute Chile, Hong-Kong or UK-and-Ireland for the other communities respectively'

You are most welcome!
5 May 2015 - 9:58AM Tony Rebelo
Yes, I think that a Lichen Project for the CoL (i.e. everywhere except s Afr and UK, until other regions start their dictionaries - what iSpot calls "global") would be most useful.
But I think it should migrate to taxonomy ASAP, rather than try other methods.
To make it work, instead of adding tags and other devious means, merely ID an unidentified lichen as Common Name = "Lichen" - certainty whatever you like. Far more efficient and anyone can contribute and help tidy up, unlike tags which cannot be added to any observations except your own.
Edit line minus 5 above to end
Lecanoromycetes and not L...
otherwise it wont work
Your UK data are most impressive:
but the global contribution is non-existent:

Interesting that
5 May 2015 - 11:13AM miked
Interesting that
picks up nothing as it is obviously missing some of my lichen observations such as
this is a case where the species name that I have used is not in the species dictionary but neither is the alternative name Cladia retipora it seems. Quite surprising as this is a common distinctive species (in NZ).

5 May 2015 - 11:43AM Tony Rebelo
The ID at is not in blue so it is not linked to a dictionary (i.e. if you click on it it wont take you to a dictionary). This aspect of iSpot really peeves me: an uninitiated beginner is left totally cold as to what is happening and 95% of experienced users too. iSpot needs a way of resolving this (even if only at curatorial level). It does mean that you can have three identical IDs through the course of an observations posting, linking (or not) to different dictionaries.
I have highlighted some of these problems previously
In this case CoL does not have an entry for the species, nor a synonym, so it cannot link no matter what you try. CoL is really pathetic (only two species in the genus Protea for example) - almost 1/3 of my species from Chile are not in CoL.
If there is a better dictionary available, why dont we approach iSpot and ask them to change to that?
The southern African community has migrated to iNaturalist at with all its data in early 2018. Beware that southern African data and identifications on this site are out of date and no longer updated.

I think CoL was chosen as it
5 May 2015 - 11:50AM miked
I think CoL was chosen as it was available in a suitable format. Producing global species dictionaries is an enormous task as you know and having something in a format that can be used is another level of difficulty. I will ask but suspect there is nothing else suitable.

EoL uses several
5 May 2015 - 2:50PM Tony Rebelo
What about Species 2000 / ITIS - no that is just CoL :: I see that EoL appears to run smoothly on several dictionaries, but that CoL is probably as good as it gets.
What a pain: southern Africa and South America are very poorly represented there.

5 May 2015 - 3:52PM marlandza
It may not look as if we're getting anywhere - but we are - just talking (communicating) and throwing ideas about is a great step forward.

Communicating and throwing things around???
5 May 2015 - 4:22PM Tony Rebelo
We solved the problem of projects for Lichens!
Is that throwing things around? Is that not getting anywhere??

I want more...
5 May 2015 - 5:36PM marlandza
I'd like Lichen species lists for regions in SA - the Doige lists could be computer-sorted, but then the names have frequently been changed.
THEN I'D LIKE some way to link to the original information when these were named.
KEW is doing this with their
Is there any chance that this could be a project for a ZA team - there is stuff in Gauteng as well as the Bolus (anything in the other Universities?)
BOLUS website states:
Lichens - Garside, Schelpe, Almborn
They go on to tell us: - Databasing takes place on an ad hoc basis. As taxa are revised by staff and students, all the material in the collection pertaining to the taxon in question is databased. Furthermore, all material that has been requested as a loan, since 1995, has been databased prior to being dispatched and all newly accessioned material, since 2005, is databased prior to being laid into the cupboards.
Scanned images for all of the 11,500 Types housed at BOL (these exclude Bryophytes and Hepatics) can be viewed by staff/students from institutions subscribed to using the facilities provided by JSTOR at {JSTOR - Oh dear, that's the snag!!)
KEW is free to all!!

5 May 2015 - 8:13PM Tony Rebelo
ARC-Fungi people are revising the Fungi and Doige's list.
I dont know if we have enough data for regional lists: use iSpot for that!!
Databased data from Bolus and other areas are available at JSTOR - write and ask for honorary subscription.
It is coming ...

6 May 2015 - 12:04AM marlandza
I think I've looked at them before - but could never find any references to LICHENS.
But have found this
Looks as if there should be more somewhere. Maybe Bolus?

High Altitude Lichens
6 May 2015 - 4:54PM Tony Rebelo
Moved here:

THEN talking of revising....
6 May 2015 - 6:38AM marlandza

what Tony, do you suggest with this one?
Not everybody agrees on the new name - and I see it's not linking.

Not in dictionary
6 May 2015 - 7:08AM Tony Rebelo

  • please add it if you have a reference.

Think I'll leave it as it stands
6 May 2015 - 8:14AM marlandza
It's a long way back - I think "Froden" and Nigel were involved, but it may be one of those that needs universal approval.

See my comment above TONY
22 February 2017 - 4:55PM marlandza
A year later...

High Altitude Lichens
6 May 2015 - 4:56PM Tony Rebelo
Lichens at high altitudes in Southern Africa
O. Almborn
It is still premature to present a detailed survey of the lichen biogeography of southern Africa but some patterns may be distinguished. The montane species (more or less corresponding to the alpine species of the Northern Hemisphere) form a fairly large group. They occur mainly at high altitudes, usually about 1000 m and are saxicolous or terricolous. A number of the montane species are endemics. Others also occur in the central African mountains. Species known from high mountains in southern Africa and also from southern America or Australia/New Zealand are of special interest to the phytogeographer, and may be relicts from the ancient Gondwana
This deals with the species listed below, with maps.
Some key points:
South Africa has a few cosmopolitan lichen species, for instance,

  • Candelaria concolor * Lobaria pulmonaria * Peltigera canina * Xanthoria parietina On the other hand, many species well known from the Northern Hemisphere are absent:
    Cetraria islandica, Cladina rangiferina, Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracee, Parmelia saxatilis and Parmelia sulcata
    There are also many endemic species, such as

  • Combea mollusca * Roccella hypomecha * Roccellina capensis (Dirina capensis)
  • Teloschistes capensis * Xanthodactylon flammeum (Xanthoria flammeum)
  • Xanthomaculina hottentotta (Omphalodium hottentotta Or Parmelia hottentotta)
    It must be emphasized, however, that the lichens, like other groups of cryptogams, have few equivalents to the high number of endemic families, genera and species known from the phanerogamic flora.
    Species mentioned:
    Almbornia cafferensis (2000-2300m) s Cape
    Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla (once on the top of Table Mt. 1000 m) (syn. Cetraria chlorophylla)
    Dermatiscum thunbergii Cape, (but not Drakensberg) Tvl, Zim
    Lasallia capensis s Cape
    Lasallia dilacerata s Cape (dilacera??)
    Lasallia glauca s Cape
    Lasallia membranacea s Cape
    Lasallia papulosa s Cape, (but not rest of ZA), Rift Valley (and N Am) Red forms have been called L. rubiginosa but all transitions from red to grey exist.
    Leprocaulon albicans (incl. L. gracilescens) s Cape, Drakensberg (and N Am, S Am)
    Neofuscelia lichinoidea s Cape
    Placopsis gelida (3000m) Lesotho (but temperate N & S Hemisphere)
    Rhizocarpon geographicum Siphula verrucigera (syn. S. tabularis) s Cape [7 species of Siphula from ZA, all montane)
    Solorina simensis (1700-3000m) Drakensberg (Rift Valley, Himalayas)

  • Stereocaulon (6 spp: S. proximum does not occur in this area)
    Stereocaulon corticulatum s Cape
    Stereocaulon esterhuysenae s Cape ***
    Stereocaulon atlanticum (>2000m) Drakensberg
    Stereocaulon claviceps (>2000m) Drakensberg
    Stereocaulon delisei (>2000m) Drakensberg
    Stereocaulon meyeri (>2000m) Drakensberg

  • Umbilicaria (11 spp, none listed by Doige)
    Xanthoria elegans (3000m) Naudes Nek Drakensberg ,
    Southern Hemisphere species also found here:
    Caloplaca ochraceofulva ( syn. C. subnitida) Drakensberg .
    Cladonia confusa (syn. Cladonia leptoclada, incl. C. alpestroides, confusa, galapogensis, incurva and polia)
    Coelocaulon epiphorellum (1600-1800m) s Cape ***
    Eremastrella crystallifera Karoo (syn. Eremastlella tobleri)
    Neofuscelia squamans Neofuscelia verisidiosa Neofuscelia verrucella Umbilicaria haplocarpa Usnea pulvinata (2000-3000m) ZA, Les, Zim
    Would be nice to get this:
    ALMBORN, 0. (1966): Revision of some lichen genera in southern Africa I. Bot . Not . I 19: 70-112.
    ***not in dictionary

Over 2000 Observations
22 May 2015 - 9:22AM Tony Rebelo
We should have an idea by Monday how many Lichen observations we have on iSpot.
Following the new checklist, we have been doing some housekeeping to get most of the Lichen observations to link here.
New checklist:
Alan M. Fryday 2015. A new checklist of lichenised, lichenicolous and allied fungi reported from South Africa Bothalia; Vol 45. doi: 10.4102/abc.v45i1.148

Looks like ...
22 May 2015 - 7:35PM marlandza
a lot of work has gone into this.

Lichen curation completed
24 May 2015 - 8:49AM Tony Rebelo
All our lichens should link up to this project or one of the associated lichen groups now.
Remember to check up every now and then at - it should just be the first few pages that will have any Lichens not classified to Lichen.
Just shy of 2500 observations of Lichen on iSpot southern Africa at present.
Where are they? see
Now to try and get them identified ...

Well done Tony
24 May 2015 - 3:41PM marlandza
That must have taken you quite some effort!!
Hope we can support you further.
One snag, which I think we can overcome by accessing another way is to go back to a particular post - I loose them when checking your list on results filter.

21 August 2015 - 10:14AM marlandza
Well done Tony!!

Species richness
25 May 2015 - 7:54AM Tony Rebelo
The current list includes 1750 taxa in 260 genera from mainland South Africa (ignoring the additional 100 species and 23 genera from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands).
Fryday states:
"... when fully explored the total lichen biota should approach 3000 taxa and that in excess of 1000 microlichens remain to be discovered.
Even if the number of Xanthoparmelia species is reduced by 100, which seems unlikely, this still suggests a total lichen biota of c. 2500 species with c. 900 microlichens still to be discovered. "

Corrected names: Lichens of southern Africa
9 June 2015 - 10:27PM Tony Rebelo
Lichens of southern Africa
< note in ed: the list was scrambled in the iNat upgrade - will ressurrect it for iNaturalist as a checklist >
Acanthothecis dialeucoidesAcarospora bellaAcarospora byliiAcarospora calviniensisAcarospora capensisAcarospora cervinaAcarospora deserticolaAcarospora insculptaAcarospora intrusaAcarospora laevigataAcarospora longisporaAcarospora lucidaAcarospora luederitzensisAcarospora macrosporaAcarospora meridionalisAcarospora negligensAcarospora ochrophaeaAcarospora porinoidesAcarospora schleicheriAcarospora socialisAcarospora subbadiaAcarospora subochraceaAcarospora subtersaAcarospora tenuisAcarospora thaeodesAcroscyphus sphaerophoroidesAderkomyces albostrigosusAllarthothelium minimumAmandinea brugieraeAmandinea natalensisAmandinea punctataAmandinea xylographellaAnaptychia ciliarisAnaptychia corallophoraAnaptychia granuliferaAnaptychia obesaAnaptychia palpebrataAnthracothecium biferumAnthracothecium duplicansAnthracothecium thwaitesiiAnthracothecium variolosumArctomia muscicolaArctoparmelia centrifugaArthonia angulataArthonia angulosaArthonia anjutiiArthonia atraArthonia brusseiArthonia calosporaArthonia cinnabarinaArthonia circumscissaArthonia hormidiellaArthonia lecideicarpaArthonia miraArthonia nanaArthonia oblongulaArthonia palmicolaArthonia polymorphaArthonia propinquaArthonia pyrenuloidesArthonia rubrofuscescensArthonia sytnikiiArthonia trilocularisArthonia variabilisArthopyrenia alboatraArthopyrenia analeptaArthopyrenia capensisArthopyrenia cinchonaeArthopyrenia knysnanaArthopyrenia leucanthesArthopyrenia norataArthopyrenia paraphysataArthopyrenia pruinosogriseaArthopyrenia receptaArthopyrenia simulansArthothelium abnormeArthothelium albidumArthothelium albumArthothelium argenteumArthothelium consanguineumArthothelium fusco-nigrumArthothelium melanopsisArthothelium michylumArthothelium obvelatumArthothelium phaeosporumArthothelium psyllodesArthothelium violascensArthrorhaphis citrinellaAspicilia cinereaAspicilia subdepressaAsterothyrium rotuliformeAulaxina dictyosporaAulaxina quadrangulaBacidia aemulaBacidia amylotheliaBacidia beckhausiiBacidia capreolinaBacidia carunculaBacidia chlorophaeataBacidia cyrtocheilaBacidia effusaBacidia endoleucellaBacidia epicyaneaBacidia friesianaBacidia heterolomaBacidia inconsequensBacidia inconveniensBacidia intermediaBacidia laurocerasiBacidia leucostephanaBacidia medialisBacidia millegranaBacidia polychroaBacidia propositaBacidia rubellaBacidia rufataBacidia stupposaBacidia subluteolaBacidia subspadiceaBacidia trifariaBacidina apiahicaBacidina pallidocarneaBactrospora africanaBaculifera cinereocinctaBaculifera micromeraBiatora vernalisBiatorella armstrongiaeBiatorella clavulusBiatorella lugensBiatorella palmetiBiatorella robiginansBilimbia sabuletorumBlastenia acaciaeBlastenia aspicilioideaBlastenia brunnthaleriBlastenia imponensBlastenia laingsburgensisBlastenia ochraceaBlastenia praemicansBlastenia psorothecioidesBlastenia punicaeBlastenia sedutrixBlastenia subsalicinaBlastenia testaceorufaBlastenia vasquesiaBrigantiaea fuscoluteaBrigantiaea leucoxanthaBrigantiaea mariaeBryoria fuscescensBullatina viridisBuellia aethaleaBuellia aethaloessaBuellia africanaBuellia albulaBuellia ambutaBuellia anatolodiaBuellia aequataBuellia brunnthaleriBuellia callainaBuellia callisporinaBuellia cangoensisBuellia coeruleataBuellia contingensBuellia dialytellaBuellia dioristaBuellia disciformisBuellia discolorellaBuellia dispersaBuellia distrahensBuellia distrataBuellia durbanaBuellia endorhodinaBuellia epichloraBuellia glenncairnensisBuellia haloniaBuellia incuriosaBuellia insidiansBuellia italicaBuellia langbaanensisBuellia lauricassiaeBuellia leucinaBuellia lutataBuellia meizocarpaBuellia melanthinaBuellia microspermaBuellia nesiotisBuellia ocoteaeBuellia oleicolaBuellia pachnodesBuellia pachysporoidesBuellia perigraptaBuellia permodicaBuellia perspersaBuellia praelataBuellia protothalliaBuellia quaternaBuellia romoletiaBuellia rudisBuellia rusticorumBuellia sequaxBuellia spuriaBuellia stellulataBuellia stizenbergeriBuellia subdisciformisBuellia subtristisBuellia transvaalicaBuellia triplicansBuellia vernicomaBulbothrix coronataBulbothrix decurtataBulbothrix goebeliiBulbothrix isidizaBulbothrix sensibilisBulbothrix suffixaBulbothrix tabacinaBulbothrix ventricosaBunodophoron melanocarpumByssoloma leucoblepharumByssoloma subdiscordansByssoloma tricholomumCaloplaca almborniiCaloplaca amphidoxaCaloplaca arenariaCaloplaca bonae-speiCaloplaca calvinianaCaloplaca capensisCaloplaca cardinalisCaloplaca cataschistaCaloplaca cateileoidesCaloplaca cerinaCaloplaca cinnabarinaCaloplaca cinnabarizaCaloplaca coccinellaCaloplaca conchiliataCaloplaca crocodesCaloplaca delectansCaloplaca discolorellaCaloplaca eckloniiCaloplaca effusaCaloplaca fecundaCaloplaca ferrugineaCaloplaca ferrogineovirensCaloplaca flavovirescensCaloplaca gracilescensCaloplaca granulosaCaloplaca gyalectoidesCaloplaca haematodesCaloplaca hampeanaCaloplaca holocarpaCaloplaca isidiosaCaloplaca leptopismaCaloplaca massulaCaloplaca mastophoraCaloplaca neethlingiiCaloplaca ochraceofulvaCaloplaca odoardiiCaloplaca pallidiorCaloplaca perexiguaCaloplaca phloginaCaloplaca placidiaCaloplaca platynaCaloplaca pyropoecilaCaloplaca pyropoeciloidesCaloplaca regalisCaloplaca saxicolaCaloplaca scoriophilaCaloplaca sophodesCaloplaca subcerinaCaloplaca sublobulataCaloplaca subseptataCaloplaca subsolutaCaloplaca subunicolorCaloplaca sympageellaCaloplaca teicophilaCalopadia fuscaCalopadia puiggariiCalopadia subcoerulescensCandelaria concolorCandelariella corallizaCandelariella elaeophaeaCandelariella glaucolivescensCandelariella vitellinaCanomaculina pilosaCanomaculina subcaperataCanomaculina uruguensisCanoparmelia antedeluvialisCanoparmelia aptataCanoparmelia crozalsianaCanoparmelia nairobiensisCanoparmelia owariensisCanoparmelia pustulescensCanoparmelia raunkiaeriCanoparmelia rodriguesianaCanoparmelia terrapapiaCanoparmelia texanaCanoparmelia zambiensisCanoparmelia zimbabwensisCarbonea vorticosaCatarrhospora miraCatarrhospora splendidaCatillaria chalybeiaCatillaria crystalliferaCatillaria golubkovaeCatillaria intermixtaCatillaria lenticularisCatillaria melampeplaCatillaria mollescensCatillaria mortualisCatillaria nigroclavataCatillaria opacataCatillaria rhyparoleucaCatillaria stictellaCatillaria subfuscataCetraria aculeataCetrelia cetrarioidesCetrelia olivetorumChapsa diploschistoidesChiodecton colensoiChiodecton galactinumChiodecton natalenseChiodecton vanderbyliiChroodiscus mirificusChroodiscus verrucosusChrysothrix candelarisCladia aggregataCladonia bacillarisCladonia caespiticiaCladonia centrophoraCladonia cervicornisCladonia chlorophaeaCladonia confusaCladonia coniocraeaCladonia didymaCladonia fimbriataCladonia flabelliformisCladonia floerkeanaCladonia furcataCladonia fuscocinereaCladonia hedbergiiCladonia macilentaCladonia multiformisCladonia ochrochloraCladonia pertricosaCladonia pocillumCladonia poecilocladaCladonia poliaCladonia portentosaCladonia pycnocladaCladonia pyxidataCladonia ramulosaCladonia rangiferinaCladonia rangiformisCladonia reiCladonia squamosaCladonia subradiataCladonia subulataClathroporina locuplesCliostomum flavumCoccocarpia palmicolaCoccocarpia pellitaCoelopogon abraxasCoelopogon epiphorellusCoenogonium afrumCoenogonium flavicansCoenogonium interplexumCoenogonium luteumCoenogonium moniliformeCoenogonium subluteumCollema almborniiCollema coccophorumCollema crispumCollema fasciculareCollema furfuraceumCollema hueanumCollema japonicumCollema kauaienseCollema leptaleumCollema nigrescensCollema polycarponCollema redundansCollema subconveniensCollema subflaccidumCollema tenaxCollema texanumCollema thysaneumCombea molluscaConotrema volvarioidesConiarthonia wilmsianaCorynecystis capensisCratiria aggrediensCresponea macrocarpoidesCrutarndina petractoidesCulbersonia nubilaCryptothecia subnidulansDegelia plumbeaDermatiscum fallaxDermatiscum thunbergiiDermatiscum virideDermatocarpon deserti“Dermatocarpon hepaticumDermatocarpon peltatumDermatocarpon vitellinumDibaeis baeomycesDigitothyrea rotundataDimelaena australiensisDimelaena oreinaDiploicia africanaDiploschistella urceolataDiploschistes actinostomusDiploschistes aeneusDiploschistes austroafricanusDiploschistes cinereocaesiusDiploschistes diacapisDiploschistes diploschistoidesDiploschistes euganeusDiploschistes hensseniaeDiploschistes hypoleucusDiploschistes isabellinusDiploschistes muscorumDiploschistes scruposusDiploschistes sticticusDiploschistes cf. thelenelloidesDiploschistes thunbergianusDiplotomma alboatrumDirina capensisDirinaria aegialitaDirinaria africanaDirinaria applanataDirinaria asperaDirinaria coccineaDirinaria confluensDirinaria flavaDirinaria isidiophoraDirinaria melanoclinaDirinaria leopoldiiDirinaria pictaDirinaria purpurascensDirinaria subpictaDufourea physcioidesEchidnocymbium speciosumEchinoplaca epiphyllaEchinoplaca pelliculaEchinoplaca strigulaceaEndocarpon pusillumEnterographa crassaEnterostigma compunctumEphebe lanataEphebe orthogoniaEremastrella crystalliferaEremastrella montanaErioderma leylandiiFellhanera bouteilleiFellhanera fuscatulaFellhanera stanhopiaeFellhanera subternellaFlavoparmelia amplexaFlavoparmelia caperataFlavoparmelia pachydactylaFlavoparmelia rutidotaFlavoparmelia salazinicaFlavoparmelia sorediansFlavopunctelia flaventiorFlavopunctelia soredicaFuscidea hottentotta*Fuscopannaria leucostictaFuscopannaria subimmixtaGlyphis cicatricosaGlyphis scyphuliferaGlyphopeltis ligusticaGomphillus calycioidesGonolecania fumosonigricansGraphina achariiGraphina analogaGraphina atrofuscaGraphina byliiGraphina obtritaGraphina pergracilisGraphina platycarpaGraphina polycarpaGraphis denudansGraphis devestiensGraphis diaphoroidesGraphis intextaGraphis intricataGraphis scriptaGraphis striatulaGraphis subolivaceaGyalectidium filicinumGyalectidium microcarpumGyalideopsis athallinoidesGymnographopsis latisporaHaematomma africanumHaematomma collatumHaematomma fenzlianumHaematomma persooniiHaematomma puniceumHafellia demutansHafellia dissaHafellia procellarumHafellia tetraplaHelminthocarpon natalenseHeppia adglutinataHeppia euplocaHeppia guepiniHeppia lutosaHeterodermia albicansHeterodermia allardiiHeterodermia antillarumHeterodermia boryiHeterodermia chilensisHeterodermia comosaHeterodermia dactylizaHeteroderma diademataHeterodermia flabellataHeterodermia hypocaesiaHeterodermia hypoleucaHeterodermia isidiophoraHeterodermia japonicaHeterodermia lepidotaHeterodermia leucomelaHeterodermia lutescensHeterodermia magellanicaHeterodermai microphyllaHeterodermia namaquanaHetreodermia obscurataHeterodermia podocarpaHeterodemia spathuliferaHeterodermia speciosaHeterodermia subcitrinaHetrodermia tremulansHeterodermia vulgarisHyperphyscia adglutinataHyperphyscia cochlearisHyperphyscia coralloideaHyperphyscia granulataHyperphyscia isidiataHyperphyscia pandaniHyperphyscia pruinosaHyperphyscia syncollaHypogymnia bitteriHypogymnia lugubrisHypogymnia physodesHypogymnia subphysodesHypotrachyna colensoicaHypotrachyna densirhizinataHypotrachyna erythrodesHypotrachyna evansiiHypotrachyna fissicarpaHypotrachyna habenulaHypotrachyna heterochroaHypotrachyna imbricatulaHypotrachyna laevigataHypotrachyna leeukopensisHypotrachyna ligulataHypotrachyna neodissectaHypotrachyna orientalisHypotrachyna osseoalbaHypotrachyna pulvinataHypotrachyna revolutaHypotrachyna scytophyllaHypotrachyna sinuosaHypotrachyna sublaevigataHypotrachyna subpustuliferaIcmadophila ericetorumImmersaria athroocarpaImshaugia aleuritesIngvariella bisporaKroswia crystalliferaLasallia capensisLasallia dilacerataLasallia glaucaLasallia membranaceaLasallia papulosaLasallia pustulataLecanactis bullataLecanactis develansLecanactis emersaLecanactis ulcerataLecania arenariaLecania cyrtellaLecania fructuosaLecanographa lynceaLecanographa subcaesioidesLecanora albellaLecanora albospersaLecanora allophanaLecanora asperaLecanora atraeformisLecanora atrorimataLecanora atrosulphureaLecanora bicinctaLecanora bogotanaLecanora breutelianaLecanora byliiLecanora caesiopallensLecanora campestrisLecanora caesiorubellaLecanora candidataLecanora carneoflavaLecanora carpineaLecanora chlaronaLecanora chlaroteraLecanora chondroplacaLecanora cinefactaLecanora crudaLecanora deminutaLecanora diffusilisLecanora dispersaLecanora elapheiaLecanora epibryonLecanora expallensLecanora farinaceaLecanora flexuosaLecanora frustulosaLecanora galactinizaLecanora glabrataLecanora helvaLecanora labiosaLecanora leprosaLecanora leucoxanthaLecanora nidulansLecanora nubilaLecanora obvirescensLecanora oreinoidesLecanora ostracodermaLecanora polytypaLecanora prosechaLecanora psaromelaLecanora pseudisteraLecanora pulicarisLecanora rehmanniiLecanora rupicolaLecanora sylvestrisLecanora thiocheilaLecanora transvaalensisLecanora vanderbyliiLecanora variaLecanora vincentinaLecidea achristellaLecidea aeneolaLecidea affineLecidea antepositaLecidea aporeticaLecidea bruguieraeLecidea buxeaLecidea caledonicaLecidea capensisLecidea crassaLecidea cyanocentraLecidea decrustulataLecidea elginensisLecidea erythrophaeaLecidea esuriensLecidea exiguaLecidea fucinaLecidea fuscoatraLecidea fuscotabulataLecidea geinaLecidea glebariaLecidea glencairnensisLecidea gouritzensisLecidea griseofusciusculaLecidea guamensisLecidea hysbergensisLecidea inscriptaLecidea insculptaLecidea lactariaLecidea lactensLecidea langbaanensisLecidea lapicidaLecidea mutabilisLecidea natalensisLecidea obumbrataLecidea ochroplacaLecidea ochroxanthaLecidea oligocheilaLecidea opalinaLecidea orbiculataLecidea owanianaLecidea pallidonigraLecidea paraspeireaLecidea peltastaLecidea peltolomaLecidea peltulideaLecidea phalerataLecidea quartzinaLecidea remotaLecidea rhynsdorpensisLecidea squamiferaLecidea stellansLecidea stuppariaLecidea subalbicansLecidea subattingensLecidea subceresinaLecidea subexiguaLecidea subexiguellaLecidea subinquinansLecidea sublucidaLecidea subcinerascensLecidea subsquamiferaLecidea subrussulaLecidea sulfurosulaLecidea terrenaLecidea theiochroaLecidea theiophoroidesLecidea tragorumLecidea trichiliaeLecidea validaLecidea vestitaLecidea zeyheriLecidella aurataLecidella elaeochromaLecidella epichromaticaLecidella euphoreaLecidella parasemaLecidella stigmateaLecidella viridansLepraria glaucellaLepraria incanaLeprocaulon albicansLeptogium africanumLeptogium austroamericanumLeptogium azureumLeptogium bullatumLeptogium burgessiiLeptogium caespitosumLeptogium capenseLeptogium chloromeloidesLeptogium chloromelumLeptogium cochleatumLeptogium coralloideumLeptogium cyanescensLeptogium daedaleumLeptogium digitatumLeptogium hildenbrandiiLeptogium kraussiiLeptogium marginellumLeptogium menziesiiLeptogium moluccanumLeptogium palmatumLeptogium phyllocarpumLeptogium saturninumLeptotrema endoxanthellumLetrouitia aureolaLetrouitia domingensisLetrouitia flavidulaLetrouitia vulpina*Lichenoconium follmanii†Lichenothelia intermedia†Lichenothelia tenuissimaLichina macrosporaLichinella stipatulaLithoglypha aggregataLithographa cerealisLithographa fumidaLobaria interversansLobaria isidiosaLobaria meridionalisLobaria patiniferaLobaria pulmonariaLobaria quercizansLobaria retigeraLobaria scrobiculataLopadium woodiiLopezaria versicolorMalmidea graniferaMaronea afroalpinaMaronea constansMaronea crassilabraMazosia melanophthalmaMazosia phyllosemaMegalospora tuberculosaMegalospora stellenboschianaMegalospora sulphurataMegalospora tuberculosa*Melanelia panniformisMelanelixia fuliginosaMelanelixia glabraMelanotheca oculeaMelaspilea gemellaMicarea almborniiMicarea endoviolascensMicarea melaenida†Microthelia confluensMoelleropsis nebulosa†Mycoporellum lahmiiMyelochroa aurulentaMyelochroa degeliiMyelochroa perisidiansNeoheppia brasiliensisNephroma africanumNephroma capenseNephroma cellulosumNephroma flavireagensNephroma helveticumNephroma laevigatumNephroma tropicumNiebla bourgaeanaNormandina pulchellaOcellularia capensisOcellularia cavataOcellularia galactinaOcellularia henatommaOchrolechia africanaOchrolechia capensisOchrolechia pallescensOchrolechia parellaOpegrapha adpictaOpegrapha agelaeaOpegrapha bacillosaOpegrapha capensisOpegrapha diagraphoidesOpegrapha diaphorellaOpegrapha exiguellaOpegrapha interalbataOpegrapha lactiferaOpegrapha lutulentaOpegrapha parvulaOpegrapha prosodeaOpegrapha semiatraOpegrapha signatellaOpegrapha tapeticaOpegrapha zaneiPachyphiale carneolaPannaria capensisPannaria centrifugaPannaria conopleaPannaria globigeraPannaria hookeriPannaria luridaPannaria planiusculaPannaria rubiginosaPannaria squamulosaPannaria tavaresiiParalecanographa grumulosaParmelia caffrorumParmelia erumpensParmelia kerguelensisParmelia “olivacea”Parmelia oleagina*Parmelia omphalodesParmelia saxatilisParmelia stenophylloidesParmelia sulcataParmelia xanthotropaParmeliella brisbanensisParmeliella coelestina*Parmeliella corallinoidesParmeliella dactyliferaParmeliella furfuraceaParmeliella imbricatulaParmeliella lacerataParmeliella marianaParmelina quercinaParmelina tiliaceaParmelinella wallichianaParmelinopsis ectypaParmelinopsis horrescensParmelinopsis spathulataParmelinopsis spumosaParmelinopsis subfatiscensParmentaria capensisParmotrema abessinicumParmotrema andinumParmotrema austrosinenseParmotrema blanchetianumParmotrema cetratumParmotrema commensuratumParmotrema cooperiParmotrema crinitumParmotrema cristiferumParmotrema cryptoxanthumParmotrema defectumParmotrema dilatatumParmotrema direagensParmotrema eciliatumParmotrema eunetumParmotrema grayanumParmotrema hababianumParmotrema latissimumParmotrema macleyanumParmotrema mellissiiParmotrema natalensisParmotrema nilgherrenseParmotrema perforatumParmotrema perlatumParmotrema pooliiParmotrema reticulatumParmotrema stuhlmanniiParmotrema sulphuratumParmotrema tinctorumParmotrema xanthinumPeccania arabica“Peccania” arizonicaPeccania aff.Peccania aff.Peccania subnigraPeltigera africanaPeltigera caninaPeltigera didactylaPeltigera hymeninaPeltigera malaceaPeltigera membranaceaPeltigera polydactylonPeltigera sorediiferaPeltula africanaPeltula bolanderiPeltula boletiformisPeltula clavataPeltula coriaceaPeltula euplocaPeltula farinosaPeltula impressaPeltula lingulataPeltula marginataPeltula obscuransPeltula patellataPeltula placodizansPeltula rodriguesiiPeltula tortuosaPeltula umbilicata†Peridiothelia fuligunctaPertusaria amaraPertusaria ambigensPertusaria apertaPertusaria castaPertusaria chiodectonoidesPertusaria coccodesPertusaria commutansPertusaria cryptostomaPertusaria diazianaPertusaria dispersaPertusaria duplicataPertusaria elatiorPertusaria enterostigmoidesPertusaria euglyptaPertusaria eyelpistiaPertusaria flavensPertusaria flavicundaPertusaria granulataPertusaria laevigataPertusaria leioplacaPertusaria leioplacellaPertusaria leoninaPertusaria leucosoroidesPertusaria limosaPertusaria melanosporaPertusaria multiplicansPertusaria niveaPertusaria orbiculataPertusaria pustulataPertusaria spaniostomaPertusaria subdealbataPertusaria subvelatulaPertusaria thiostomaPertusaria trypetheliiformisPertusaria velataPertusaria vepallidaPertusaria wawreanaPertusaria wawreanoidesPertusaria wilmsiiPertusaria xanthomelaena*Phacopsis australis*Phacopsis falcispora*Phacopsis oxysporaPhaeographina caesiopruinosaPhaeographina limbataPhaeographina subfarinaceaPhaeographis conjungensPhaeographis crypticaPhaeographis inustaPhaeographis mesographaPhaeophyscia adiostolaPhaeophyscia ciliataPhaeophyscia confusaPhaeophyscia endococcinaPhaeophyscia fumosaPhaeophyscia hirsutaPhaeophyscia hispidulaPhaeophyscia orbicularisPhlyctella andensisPhlyctella capillarisPhlyctidia boliviensisPhlyctis argenaPhlyctis candidaPhyllopsora albicansPhyllopsora breviusculaPhyllopsora corallinaPhyllopsora furfuraceaPhyllopsora nemoralisPhyllopsora pannosaPhyllopsora parvifoliaPhyllopsora parvifoliellaPhyllopsora thalerizaPhyscia adscendensPhyscia affixaPhyscia aipoliaPhyscia albataPhyscia alnophilaPhyscia atrostriataPhyscia bizianaPhyscia caesiaPhyscia clementeiPhyscia crispaPhyscia decorticataPhyscia dilatataPhyscia dimidiataPhyscia dubiaPhyscia endochryseaPhyscia erumpensPhyscia erythrocardia“Physcia hispidaPhyscia integrataPhyscia jackiiPhyscia krogiaePhyscia poncinsiiPhyscia stellarisPhyscia tribaceaPhyscia tribacoidesPhyscia undulataPhyscia venustulaPhyscia zuluensisPhysciella chloanthaPhysconia distortaPhysconia griseaPhysma byrsaeumPhysma byrsinumPhysma callicarpumPilophorus acicularePlacidium acarosporoidesPlacidium kaernefeltiiPlacidium semaforonensePlacidium squamulosumPlacidium tenellumPlacopsis gelidaPlacynthiopsis africanaPlatismatia glauca†Pleurotrema trichosporum†Pleurotrema uniserialePoeltiaria corralensisPoeltiaria howickensisPoeltiaria turgescensPoeltiaria urbanskyanaPolyblastiopsis albaPolyblastiopsis transvaalensisPolychidium dendriscumPorina albellaPorina balaninaPorina chloroticaPorina dwesicaPorina epiphyllaPorina epiphylloidesPorina euryspermumPorina fulvellaPorina imitatrixPorina knysnanaPorina mazosioidesPorina nitidulaPorina palmicolaPorina tetraceraePorina trichothelioidesPorina variegataPorocyphus effiguratusPorpidia albocaerulescensPorpidia crustulataPorpidia flavicundaPorpidia soredizodesPorpidia speireaProtoparmelia badiaPsathyrophlyctis serpentariaPseudocyphellaria argyraceaPseudocyphellaria aurataPseudocyphellaria carpolomaPseudocyphellaria clathrataPseudocyphellaria crocataPseudocyphellaria coronataPseudocyphellaria gilvaPseudocyphellaria intricataPseudocyphellaria mougeotianaPseudocyphellaria norvegica*Pseudonitschkia parmotrematisPseudoparmelia chapadensisPseudoparmelia chloreaPseudoparmelia convexaPseudoparmelia uleanaPseudopyrenula papulosaPsora cf. cerebriformisPsora crenataPsora deceptoriaPsora decipiensPsoroma asperellumPsoroma fruticulosumPsoroma sphinctrinumPsorotheciopsis patellarioidesPterygiopsis convexaPterygiopsis melanophthalmaPterygiopsis submersaPunctelia borreriPunctelia constantimontiumPunctelia rudectaPunctelia sticticaPunctelia subrudectaPyrenopsis mackenzieiPyrenowilmsia ferruginosaPyrenula aspisteaPyrenula cinereaPyrenula knightianaPyrenula laevigataPyrenula mamillanaPyrenula mastophoraPyrenula nitidaPyrenula nitidellaPyrenula obtectaPyrenula pinguisPyrenula pyrenuloidesPyrenula subductaPyrenula subglabriusculaPyrenula transparensPyrenula wilmsianaPyxine berterianaPyxine cocoesPyxine eschweileriPyxine nubilaPyxine obscurascensPyxine petricolaPyxine reticulataPyxine sorediataPyxine subcinereaRamalina angulosaRamalina arabumRamalina arbusculaRamalina asperaRamalina attenuataRamalina calicarisRamalina capensisRamalina celastriRamalina complanataRamalina cuspidataRamalina denticulataRamalina eckloniiRamalina farinaceaRamalina fastigiataRamalina fraxineaRamalina gracilisRamalina inflataRamalina inflataRamalina intermediaRamalina laceraRamalina lanceolataRamalina linearisRamalina melanothrixRamalina peruvianaRamalina pollinariaRamalina protensaRamalina pusillaRamalina reductaRamalina roesleriRamalina siliquosaRamalina subasperataRamalina subfraxineaRamalina tenellaRamalina usneaRamalina yemensisRamboldia russulaRamboldia sanguinolentaRelicina limbataRelicina planiusculaRhizocarpon affineRhizocarpon badioatrumRhizocarpon capenseRhizocarpon disporumRhizocarpon geographicumRhizocarpon lecanorinumRhizocarpon patellariumRhizocarpon reductumRhizocarpon superficialeRhizocarpon viridiatrumRinodina albocinctaRinodina capensisRinodina confragulosaRinodina deminutulaRinodina detectaRinodina exiguaRinodina exiguellaRinodina fictaRinodina huefferianaRinodina microlepidaRinodina roborisRinodina sophodesRinodina reagensRinodina teichophiloidesRoccella arnoldiiRoccella capensisRoccella fuciformisRoccella montagneiRoccella phycopsisRoccellina hypomechaRoccellographa circumscriptaRopalospora lugubrisSarcographa disjectansSarcogyne regularisSchaereria fuscocinereaSchismatomma septenariumSchizodiscus afroalpinusSchistoplaca alvearialisSiphula ceratitesSiphula decumbensSiphula dregeiSiphula flavofvirensSiphula incrustansSiphula minorSiphula verrucigeraSolorina simensisSphaerophorus globosusSphinctrina anglicaSphinctrina fuscescensSphinctrina meridionalisSphinctrina turbinataSporopodium xanthleucumSquamarina cartilagineaStaurothele clopimaStegobolus austroafricanusStegobolus wrightiiStereocaulon atlanticumStereocaulon clavicepsStereocaulon corticatulumSterocaulon deliseiSterocaulon esterhuyseniaeStereocaulon meyeriStereocaulon ramulosumSticta ambavillariaSticta damicornisSticta fuliginosaSticta hornemanniSticta limbataSticta subcrocataSticta sublimbataSticta sylvaticaSticta tomentosaSticta variabilisSticta weigeliiStrigula actinoplacoidesStrigula africanaStrigula argyronemaStrigula maculataStrigula nemathoraStrigula nitidulaStrigula obductaStrigula orbicularisStrigula pallidaStrigula phyllogenaStrigula smaragdulaStrigula subtilissimaSynalissa austroafricanaTapellaria epiphllaTeloschistes capensisTeloschistes chrysophthalmusTeloschistes cymbaliferTeloschistes exilisTeloschistes flavicansTeloschistes hypoglaucusTeloschistes perrugosusTeloschistes puberTeloschistes pulvinarisTephromela atraTephromela promontoriiThelenella brasiliensisThelenella luridellaThelopsis obscuraThelotrema berkeleyanumThelotrema capenseThelotrema leioplacoidesThelotrema lepadinumThyrea otavianaTomasellia africanaToninia aromaticaToninia australisToninia bumamma*Toninia caeruleonigricansToninia caesiopallidaToninia cinereovirensToninia incretataToninia lutosaToninia nigropallidaToninia aff.Topeliopsis muscigenaTrapelia chiodectonoidesTrapelia coarctataTrapelia redivivaTrapeliopsis granulosaTrapeliopsis parilisTylophoron africanumTylophoron byliiTrypethelium austroafricanumTrypethelium eluteriaeTrypethelium phlyctaenaTuckermannopsis chlorophyllaUmbilicaria bolusianaUmbilicaria cylindricaUmbilicaria decussataUmbilicaria haplocarpaUmbilicaria hirsutaUmbilicaria laevisUmbilicaria polyphyllaUmbilicaria schelpeiUmbilicaria subglabraUmbilicaria umbilicarioidesUsnea aequatorianaUsnea africanaUsnea amplissimaUsnea articulataUsnea australisUsnea baileyiUsnea bornmuelleriUsnea austroafricanaUsnea cartilagineaUsnea complanataUsnea contortaUsnea corneaUsnea cornutaUsnea dasopogaUsnea dasypogoidesUsnea delicataUsnea densirostraUsnea diffractaUsnea distensaUsnea exasperataUsnea filamentosaUsnea flaccidoangulataUsnea flexilisUsnea floridaUsnea flotowiiUsnea fuscaUsnea gonioidesUsnea havaasiiUsnea hesperinaUsnea hirtaUsnea hispidaUsnea hispidulaUsnea horridulaUsnea laevisUsnea liechtensteiniiUsnea longissimaUsnea maculataUsnea molliusculaUsnea moniliformisUsnea mutabilisUsnea nidificaUsnea ochrophoraUsnea perplexansUsnea pictaUsnea plicataUsnea poliothrixUsnea praelongaUsnea primitivaUsnea promontoriiUsnea pulverulentaUsnea pulvinataUsnea rubicundaUsnea rubrotinctaUsnea sorediosulaUsnea steineriUsnea strigosaUsnea strigosellaUsnea subfloridaUsnea subfloridanaUsnea subleprosaUsnea subluridaUsnea submollisUsnea sulcataUsnea trichinaUsnea trichodeoidesUsnea undulataUsnea welwitschianaVainionora flavovirensVerrucaria compactaVerrucaria erodensVerrucaria microlepideaVerrucaria nigrescensVerrucaria rebellansVerrucaria viridulaXanthodactylon alexanderbaaiXanthodactylon flammeumXanthodactylon turbinatumXanthodactylon wirthiiXanthomendoza mendozaeXanthoparmelia abraxasXanthoparmelia adamanteaXanthoparmelia adhaerensXanthoparmelia adligansXanthoparmelia affinisXanthoparmelia africanaXanthoparmelia afroincertaXanthoparmelia afrolavicolaXanthoparmelia agamalisXanthoparmelia aggregataXanthoparmelia albomaculataXanthoparmelia aliphaticaXanthoparmelia aliphaticellaXanthoparmelia almborniiXanthoparmelia amphixanthoidesXanthoparmelia amplexulaXanthoparmelia amplexuloidesXanthoparmelia annexaXanthoparmelia antleriformisXanthoparmelia applicataXanthoparmelia applicatellaXanthoparmelia arcanaXanthoparmelia areolataXanthoparmelia aridaXanthoparmelia arquataXanthoparmelia asilarisXanthoparmelia assimilisXanthoparmelia astrictaXanthoparmelia atroviridisXanthoparmelia atroventralisXanthoparmelia ausianaXanthoparmelia australasicaXanthoparmelia austroafricanaXanthoparmelia austrocapensisXanthoparmelia austroconstrictansXanthoparmelia azaniensisXanthoparmelia bainskloofensisXanthoparmelia bardaXanthoparmelia barclyensisXanthoparmelia basutoensisXanthoparmelia beatriceaXanthoparmelia beckeriXanthoparmelia bibaxXanthoparmelia bicontinensXanthoparmelia brandwagensisXanthoparmelia brevilobulataXanthoparmelia brunnthaleriXanthoparmelia brusseiXanthoparmelia burmeisteriXanthoparmelia cafferensisXanthoparmelia caliginosaXanthoparmelia calviniaXanthoparmelia capensisXanthoparmelia cedri-montanaXanthoparmelia ceresellaXanthoparmelia ceresensisXanthoparmelia ceresinaXanthoparmelia chalybaeizansXanthoparmelia chionophilaXanthoparmelia cirrhomedullosaXanthoparmelia clivorumXanthoparmelia colensoicaXanthoparmelia colorataXanthoparmelia competitaXanthoparmelia concolorXanthoparmelia condyloidesXanthoparmelia coneruptensXanthoparmelia congensisXanthoparmelia conspersaXanthoparmelia conspersulaXanthoparmelia constrictansXanthoparmelia contrastaXanthoparmelia coriaceaXanthoparmelia crassilobataXanthoparmelia craveniiXanthoparmelia crustulosaXanthoparmelia cumberlandiaXanthoparmelia denudataXanthoparmelia diacidaXanthoparmelia diadetaXanthoparmelia dichromaticaXanthoparmelia diffractaicaXanthoparmelia digitiformisXanthoparmelia disitifoliaXanthoparmelia diutinaXanthoparmelia domokosiiXanthoparmelia domokosioidesXanthoparmelia dregeanaXanthoparmelia dubitellaXanthoparmelia duplicataXanthoparmelia dwaasbergensisXanthoparmelia dysprosaXanthoparmelia effigurataXanthoparmelia emolumentaXanthoparmelia endochromaticaXanthoparmelia endomiltoidesXanthoparmelia enteroxanthaXanthoparmelia epacrideaXanthoparmelia epigaeaXanthoparmelia eradicataXanthoparmelia erebeaXanthoparmelia eruptensXanthoparmelia esslingeriXanthoparmelia esterhuyseniaeXanthoparmelia exornataXanthoparmelia faustaXanthoparmelia festivaXanthoparmelia filarszkyanaXanthoparmelia filsoniiXanthoparmelia fissurinaXanthoparmelia flavescentireagensXanthoparmelia foveolataXanthoparmelia frondosaXanthoparmelia fucinaXanthoparmelia fumarafricanaXanthoparmelia ganymedeaXanthoparmelia geesteraniXanthoparmelia glabransXanthoparmelia globisidiosaXanthoparmelia glomelliferonicaXanthoparmelia greytonensisXanthoparmelia gyrophoricaXanthoparmelia heterodoxaXanthoparmelia hottentottaXanthoparmelia hybridaXanthoparmelia hypoleiaXanthoparmelia hypoleiellaXanthoparmelia hypoprotocetraricaXanthoparmelia hypopsilaXanthoparmelia hyporhytidaXanthoparmelia ianthinaXanthoparmelia imitatrixXanthoparmelia incertaXanthoparmelia inconspicuaXanthoparmelia indumenicaXanthoparmelia infaustaXanthoparmelia inopsXanthoparmelia iniquitaXanthoparmelia insipidaXanthoparmelia inunctaXanthoparmelia ischnoidesXanthoparmelia isidiigeraXanthoparmelia isidiosaXanthoparmelia karooXanthoparmelia karooensisXanthoparmelia keralensisXanthoparmelia kleinswartbergensisXanthoparmelia knoxiiXanthoparmelia laciniataXanthoparmelia lapidulaXanthoparmelia latilobataXanthoparmelia laxchalybaeizansXanthoparmelia laxencrustansXanthoparmelia lecanoraceaXanthoparmelia leonoraXanthoparmelia leptoplacaXanthoparmelia leucostigmaXanthoparmelia lichinoideaXanthoparmelia lineellaXanthoparmelia lineolaXanthoparmelia lividicaXanthoparmelia lobaricaXanthoparmelia lobuliferaXanthoparmelia lobuliferellaXanthoparmelia lorilobaXanthoparmelia lucrosaXanthoparmelia luminosaXanthoparmelia luridaXanthoparmelia lyrigeraXanthoparmelia maculodecipiensXanthoparmelia magnificansXanthoparmelia maninaXanthoparmelia maritimaXanthoparmelia marroninipunctaXanthoparmelia maximaXanthoparmelia mbabanensisXanthoparmelia mehaleiXanthoparmelia melancholicaXanthoparmelia mesmerizansXanthoparmelia microlobulataXanthoparmelia micromaculataXanthoparmelia microscopicaXanthoparmelia minutaXanthoparmelia minutellaXanthoparmelia mollisXanthoparmelia molliusculaXanthoparmelia molybdizaXanthoparmelia mongaensisXanthoparmelia mougeotiiXanthoparmelia mougeotinaXanthoparmelia mucinaeXanthoparmelia multiacidaXanthoparmelia musculinaXanthoparmelia mutabilisXanthoparmelia namakwaXanthoparmelia namaquensisXanthoparmelia natalensisXanthoparmelia naudesnekiaXanthoparmelia nautilomontanaXanthoparmelia neocongensisXanthoparmelia neocongruensXanthoparmelia neoconspersaXanthoparmelia neocumberlandiaXanthoparmelia neoesterhuyseniaeXanthoparmelia neononreagensXanthoparmelia neopropaguliferaXanthoparmelia neoreptansXanthoparmelia neorimalisXanthoparmelia neosynestiaXanthoparmelia neotasmanicaXanthoparmelia neotumidosaXanthoparmelia neoweberiXanthoparmelia nigropsoromiferaXanthoparmelia nimbicolaXanthoparmelia norlobaridonicaXanthoparmelia norlobaronicaXanthoparmelia numinbahensisXanthoparmelia obscurataXanthoparmelia ochropulchraXanthoparmelia olifantensisXanthoparmelia olivetoricaXanthoparmelia oreophilaXanthoparmelia oribensisXanthoparmelia ovealmborniiXanthoparmelia pachycladaXanthoparmelia paradoxaXanthoparmelia parvilobaXanthoparmelia parvoincertaXanthoparmelia patulaXanthoparmelia perplexaXanthoparmelia perrugosaXanthoparmelia perspersaXanthoparmelia pertinaxXanthoparmelia phaeophanaXanthoparmelia plittiiXanthoparmelia polysticticaXanthoparmelia ponderosaXanthoparmelia pristilobaXanthoparmelia probarbellataXanthoparmelia prodomokosiiXanthoparmelia prolataXanthoparmelia prolixulaXanthoparmelia protocetraricaXanthoparmelia protodysprosaXanthoparmelia protomatraeXanthoparmelia protoquintariaXanthoparmelia proximataXanthoparmelia pseudepheboidesXanthoparmelia pseudocafferensisXanthoparmelia pseudocongensisXanthoparmelia pseudoglabransXanthoparmelia pseudohypoleiaXanthoparmelia pseudopullaXanthoparmelia psornorsticticaXanthoparmelia psoromicaXanthoparmelia psoromiferaXanthoparmelia pudensXanthoparmelia pullaXanthoparmelia pustuliferaXanthoparmelia pustulosorediataXanthoparmelia putidaXanthoparmelia putsoaXanthoparmelia pyrenaicaXanthoparmelia quinonellaXanthoparmelia quintariaXanthoparmelia quintarioidesXanthoparmelia rallaXanthoparmelia rubrireagensXanthoparmelia rubromedullaXanthoparmelia rubropustulataXanthoparmelia rugulosaXanthoparmelia salamphixanthaXanthoparmelia salazinicaXanthoparmelia saleruptensXanthoparmelia saniensisXanthoparmelia saxetiXanthoparmelia scabrellaXanthoparmelia scabrosaXanthoparmelia scabrosinitaXanthoparmelia schenkianaXanthoparmelia scitulaXanthoparmelia shebaiensisXanthoparmelia sigillataXanthoparmelia simulansXanthoparmelia sipmaniiXanthoparmelia sitiensXanthoparmelia skyriniferaXanthoparmelia somloensisXanthoparmelia spargensXanthoparmelia spesicaXanthoparmelia spissaXanthoparmelia springbokensisXanthoparmelia spodochroaXanthoparmelia squamansXanthoparmelia squamariataXanthoparmelia squamaticaXanthoparmelia standaertiiXanthoparmelia stenosporonicaXanthoparmelia subbarbaticaXanthoparmelia subbullataXanthoparmelia subchalybaeizansXanthoparmelia subcolorataXanthoparmelia subconvolutaXanthoparmelia subcrustaceaXanthoparmelia subcrustosaXanthoparmelia subdecipiensXanthoparmelia subdomokosiiXanthoparmelia suberadicataXanthoparmelia subflabellataXanthoparmelia subhosseanaXanthoparmelia subimitatrixXanthoparmelia subincertaXanthoparmelia sublaevisXanthoparmelia subnigraXanthoparmelia subochraceaXanthoparmelia subpallidaXanthoparmelia subpigmentosaXanthoparmelia subplittiiXanthoparmelia subramigeraXanthoparmelia subruginosaXanthoparmelia subsquamariataXanthoparmelia substenophylloidesXanthoparmelia substygiodesXanthoparmelia suppositaXanthoparmelia surrogataXanthoparmelia swartbergensisXanthoparmelia synestiaXanthoparmelia tablensisXanthoparmelia tasmanicaXanthoparmelia tegetaXanthoparmelia tenuilobaXanthoparmelia terrestrisXanthoparmelia terricolaXanthoparmelia thamnolicaXanthoparmelia toninioidesXanthoparmelia tortulaXanthoparmelia trachythallinaXanthoparmelia transvaalensisXanthoparmelia treurensisxanthoparmelia triebeliaeXanthoparmelia tsekensisXanthoparmelia tumidosaXanthoparmelia tyrrheaXanthoparmelia umtamvunaXanthoparmelia unctulaXanthoparmelia usitataXanthoparmelia vanderbyliiXanthoparmelia vendensisXanthoparmelia verecundaXanthoparmelia verisidiosaXanthoparmelia verrucellaXanthoparmelia verruciformisXanthoparmelia verrucigeraXanthoparmelia verruculiferaXanthoparmelia vernicosaXanthoparmelia victorianaXanthoparmelia violaceaXanthoparmelia viridisXanthoparmelia waboombergensisXanthoparmelia waboomsbergensisXanthoparmelia weberiXanthoparmelia wesselsiiXanthoparmelia worcesteriXanthoparmelia xanthomelanellaXanthoparmelia xanthomelanoidesXanthoria aureolaXanthoria bonae-speiXanthoria candelariaXanthoria capensisXanthoria dissectulaXanthoria doidgeaeXanthoria elegansXanthoria ectaneoidesXanthoria hirsutaXanthoria inflataXanthoria karrooensisXanthoria ligulataXanthoria marlothiiXanthoria monofoliosaXanthoria parietinaXanthoria sipmaniiZwackhia bonplandiiSource:
Alan M. Fryday 2015. A new checklist of lichenised, lichenicolous and allied fungi reported from South Africa Bothalia; Vol 45. doi: 10.4102/abc.v45i1.148

Publicado el febrero 11, 2019 09:05 TARDE por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Lichens of South Africa

The Lichen species of South Africa as per
Alan M. Fryday 2015. A new checklist of lichenised, lichenicolous and allied fungi reported from South Africa Bothalia; Vol 45. doi: 10.4102/abc.v45i1.148
has been added to

The current list includes 1750 taxa in 260 genera from mainland South Africa, with an additional 100 species and 23 genera from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands, which are treated separately. ... It is estimated that, when fully explored, the lichen biota of South Africa will consist of somewhere between 2500 and 3000 taxa.

The following species not found in dictionary and thus not added:
Amandinea natalensis
Anaptychia obesa
Bacidia subluteola
Bactrospora africana
Blastenia imponens, Blastenia psorothecioides, Blastenia punicae, Blastenia sedutrix
Buellia discolorella, Buellia italica (=Buellia spuria), Buellia protothallia
Caloplaca ferrogineovirens, Caloplaca hampeana, Caloplaca subcerina, Caloplaca sympageella, Caloplaca subsoluta, Caloplaca phlogina
Canoparmelia crozalsiana
Collema coccophorum, Collema crispum, Collema polycarpon, Collema tenax
Diploschistes diacapis
Echinoplaca strigulacea
Graphina bylii
Gyalideopsis athallinoides
Heppia guepini
Heteroderma diademata, Heterodermai microphylla, Hetreodermia obscurata, Heterodemia spathulifera, Hetrodermia tremulans
Lasallia capensis, Lasallia dilacerata
Lecanora thiocheila, Lecanora vanderbylii
Lecidea aeneola, Lecidea geina, Lecidea squamifera
Lopadium woodii
Megalospora stellenboschiana, Megalospora tuberculosa
Nephroma tropicum (=Nephroma helveticum)
Ochrolechia capensis
Parmotrema natalensis
Peltigera sorediifera
Pertusaria wawreanoides
Phaeophyscia adiostola
Physcia tribacea
Placidium kaernefeltii
Pleurotrema trichosporum
Pterygiopsis melanophthalma
Ramalina lanceolata
Rinodina confragulosa
Siphula dregei, Siphula flavofvirens, Siphula incrustans
Sporopodium xanthleucum
Sterocaulon delisei, Sterocaulon esterhuyseniae
Sticta hornemanni
Tapellaria epiphlla
Usnea flaccidoangulata, Usnea gonioides
Xanthoparmelia brevilobulata, Xanthoparmelia disitifolia, Xanthoparmelia exornata
Xanthoparmelia ganymedea, Xanthoparmelia leptoplaca, Xanthoparmelia lyrigera
Xanthoparmelia microscopica, Xanthoparmelia mucinae, Xanthoparmelia perspersa, Xanthoparmelia perspersa
Xanthoparmelia salazinica, Xanthoparmelia schenkiana, Xanthoparmelia subchalybaeizans, Xanthoparmelia vernicosa
Xanthoria dissectula
Zwackhia bonplandii

High Altitude Lichens

Lichens at high altitudes in Southern Africa O. Almborn 1987

It is still premature to present a detailed survey of the lichen biogeography of southern Africa but some patterns may be distinguished. The montane species (more or less corresponding to the alpine species of the Northern Hemisphere) form a fairly large group. They occur mainly at high altitudes; usually about 1000 m and are saxicolous or terricolous. A number of the montane species are endemics. Others also occur in the central African mountains. Species known from high mountains in southern Africa and also from southern America or Australia/New Zealand are of special interest to the phytogeographer; and may be relicts from the ancient Gondwana
This deals with the species listed below; with maps.

Some key points:
South Africa has a few cosmopolitan lichen species; for instance;

  • Candelaria concolor * Lobaria pulmonaria * Peltigera canina * Xanthoria parietina On the other hand; many species well known from the Northern Hemisphere are absent:
    Cetraria islandica; Cladina rangiferina; Evernia prunastri; Pseudevernia furfuracee; Parmelia saxatilis and Parmelia sulcata
    There are also many endemic species; such as

  • Combea mollusca * Roccella hypomecha * Roccellina capensis (Dirina capensis)
  • Teloschistes capensis * Xanthodactylon flammeum (Xanthoria flammeum)
  • Xanthomaculina hottentotta (Omphalodium hottentotta Or Parmelia hottentotta)
    It must be emphasized; however; that the lichens; like other groups of cryptogams; have few equivalents to the high number of endemic families; genera and species known from the phanerogamic flora.
    Species mentioned are posted here:

Note posted: Lasallia capensis, Lasallia dilacerata, oelocaulon epiphorellum

Publicado el febrero 11, 2019 11:00 TARDE por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

14 de febrero de 2019

Cape Town City Nature Challenge 2019: FAQ

Frequently asked questions:

Q? Do planted/captive organisms (excluding dogs and cats) count?
• Yes, all living organisms count. But the focus is on wild and natural organisms. Please mark any observations that you definitely know are planted or captive as such. Note that aliens and weeds are wild!

Q? What happens if my plant/goggo cannot be identified?
• Observations that cannot be identified to species level wont add to the species tally, but will still count to the number of observations score. It is important though to take several pictures of different features from different angles, with some closeups. This will help get precise identifications.
• We hope to get experts in many groups to help us with identifications. So with luck most of your observations will be identified to species level.

Q? I hope to do a 20Nm day birding trip to sea (weather permitting). Will the data be included within the City?
• Strictly we are using a 2Nm buffer to the city, but we have requested permission to include any Pelagic trips targeting marine birds, fish and mammals during the City Nature Challenge.
On land though, we will only include the city limits: note that Steenbras Dam, Helderberg and Dassenberg are included in the City, as is Cape Point and Table Mountain.

Q? Do the insects in my garden count to the totals?
• Most definitely. As do the plants and other animals that they are feeding on or associated with.
So do animals and fungi in your house: the ants, moths and other visitors also count. Please record them all. If you know that your garden or street trees are planted, please mark them as such.

Q? Do I have to register to participate, or is joining iNaturalist enough?
• All you have to do is join iNaturalist and make observations during the four days of the City Nature Challenge (26-29 April 2019) within the City of Cape Town limits - from Bokbaai to Kogelbaai and from Cape Point to Helderberg and Atlantis, and upload them on or before the 5th of May 2019.
• Some groups have special projects we are requesting them to use. So Scouts will add their Scouting project, CREW volunteers will add the Habitat project, and so forth. if you would like to add your own tags or notes you are most welcome.
• At the same time as contributing to the City Nature Challenge, observations will also automatically be contributing to the Nature Reserve, Greenbelt, and other places, checklists and projects. The iNaturalist website will handle that all automatically. All you have to do is photograph and upload with the iNaturalist app.

Q? What happens if the weather turns ugly and we cannot get out on those days?
• There are four days (26-29 April 2019). We will just have to try harder on the best days. In the very worst case scenario of four days of major Easter cold front storms with torrential rain, we will make up for it in 2020.

Q? Why are we having it in autumn, instead of spring when things are happening?
• A very good question. Some say we should organize our own southern hemisphere City Nature Challenge in our austral spring, rather than during the northern spring. Still we have enough biodiversity to match any northern city in spring during our autumn. Let us prove it. Doing it during our spring will just be far too easy.

Q? Who will identify my observations?
• We will have teams to help make identifications after the data collection period of the City Nature Challenge. So your observations will be identified over the next few days from 30 April until 5 May 2019.
• However, it will help if your observation contains good closeups of features, such as heads, legs, wings, and bodies of animals, and flowers, bracts, leaves and stems of plants, and views of the gills or undersides of fungi. Several pictures of different parts from different angles will help considerably with making an accurate identification.
• If you can help with identification, it will be appreciated. We need both experts who know all the local species in a group, as well as those who can help to put observations into families or genera. Please contact your nearest CREW or Botanical Society group to help us. Identifiers can be from all around the world, so please rope in your relatives overseas if they can help!

Q? By when must observations made during the 4 days be uploaded?
• After the four days ((26-29 April 2019)) are up there are a few days grace (until 6 May) to upload. However, we do need to identify the organisms, so as soon as is possible please - aim for the 4th May at the latest..

Q? I would like to photograph small things! How do I get good photographs?
• It helps to zoom in. Enlarge the image on your screen before taking the photograph. If you desire, you can use a magnifying glass in front of your smartphone lens.

• One can also buy magnifying accessories at many smartphone stores, that clip onto your phone and can make minute ants look huge. if you can get hold of one and focus on our really small life, it would be really cool!

Q? How can I track progress during the challenge to see how many observations and species and participants there are?
• Visit this project, or bookmark this link: It will continuously update as the challenge progresses.
Check out the competition here: - this is continuously updated, so you can monitor progress. Remember that we are near GMT, so almost half the world is ahead of us (starting with New Zealand 10 hours ahead) and half behind (ending with Hawaii 14 hours behind).

Q? How do I find out where a species has been recorded in the city?
• On the iNaturalist web page, choose "Explore", and add in the organism name (you can use common names) and the place (City of Cape Town) and you can look at the map, observations, species (if you have chosen a genus or family), and the observers and identifiers in the area. For instance:
King Protea:
Sparrows: (click on the species tab to see the species recorded)

Q? How do I find a checkist for a nature reserve or other place?
• On the iNaturalist web page, choose More, select places, and enter the name of the place you are interested in. On the page, choose the checklist option below the filters on the left. You can narrow down the checklist to any group, family or genus that your are interested in. For instance:
Helderberg Nature Reserve:
Constantia Green Belt:
Data for more places:
Blaauwberg, Bothasig Fynbos, Botterblom, Bracken, Durbanville, Driftsands, Edith Stephens, False Bay (Rondevlei), Harmony Flats, Helderberg, Kenilworth Race Course, Steenbras, Table Bay (Rietvlei), Table Mountain, Tygerberg, Uitkamp, Witsands, Wolfgat, Zandvlei
Constantia Green Belts, Jack Miller Danie Uys Park, Meadowridge Common, Rondebosch Common
Ardern Arboretum, Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, Tokai Arboretum
Strandfontein Sewer Works

Q? I am stuck at home and cannot get to the activities. What can I do?
• Your garden is a perfect biodiversity enclave. Record the visitors: bees, flies, butterflies, birds. Also your pests: aphids, millipedes, snails and caterpillars. Why not look for chameleons and lizards as well? And dont forget to include your garden plants, especially if they interact with pollinators, or fruit dispersing birds or are a food source for other wildlife. Even your pot plants: just mark them as 'planted'.

Q? Can several people take pictures of the same plant? Will it be useful if they did, or rather a waste of time? I guess it would add to the total observations but not to the total species observed.
• It is better if they dont. Why should they? There are lots of plants. Rather send the team or bioblitzers to find other plants.

Of course it will happen that several observers may photograph the same species on your excursion. If they are more than a few hundred metres away then the distribution information is useful. If they are less, then it is still useful information. But please discourage an entire class photographing the same bush.
Inevitably it will happen that a really special plant/goggo/bird/etc. is found. And everyone wants to record it to add to their life list. These things happen, and should not be discouraged. Not only will everyone want to photograph it, but some will want to come back and photograph it again. That is also OK, as it contributes to the phenology data - growth, flowering, fruiting, even flowering times during the day (or night): they data are always useful.

Q? If I photograph a plant and then see another of the same species nearby, should I photograph it? How far away should these be to qualify as different observations? (1m, or 5m, or 20m,..?)
• If you are going to photograph each species every 1m, then after 5 hours you will have crawled 50m and be exhausted. A rule of thumb is to think population-wise: try and get every population. So for some trees it will be 5km away. For some rare post-fire herbs, every 50m should be adequate. If it is rare, record every clump. if it is common, select a few places along your route.
it also depends on the projects. For Western Leopard Toads photograph each toad, showing its "finger print" markings on the back. For European Starlings, one photo per flock per week is almost too much.

Q? If I photograph a plant non-indigenous to our area (ie planted), how should this be labelled? A thumbs-down to "Organism is wild"?
• Yes, this is the correct thing to do. On the app, just click not wild. Note that if it is a special plant and you want confirmation of the ID, it might be wise to hold back marking it as planted until you get confirmation of the ID, because observations marked "not wild" go out of the "Needs ID" queue. For the CNC, this does not matter as one ID is enough for our purposes.
• Dont confuse "not wild" with "not indigenous": lots of alien and near-alien species are very wild! Not wild is for those plants that you know were planted, and those animals still captive.

Q? Identification - I assume this is needed to species level - genus level is not enough? What about common names - are they good enough?
• Identification. We have been caught napping. Our southern African common names are not yet on iNaturalist (we are waiting for the community to be installed before doing this). Otherwise the common name would give you the scientific name automatically (unless there were complications - like several species with the same name).

• For purposes of posting the ID, dont worry. Just add the name that you know (common, vernacular, scientific, pet name). The identification teams will mop up afterwards. Get the observation in the bag, and dont worry about identification during the four days of the challenge.

Q? How many "agree"s are needed for identification?
• Two agreements are needed for "research grade". But for the purposes of the City Nature Challenge, a single identification will suffice. But it wont suffice for us in Cape Town. We will endeavour to get two agreements for our critical observations - where a critical observation is one that gives us a name towards our species total. We dont want wrong Identifications. Some will undoubtedly occur, but we want to catch them as soon as possible. So the short answer is only one ID is needed for the CNC, but two are needed for Cape Town's contributions.

Q? Who determines whether the plant is correctly identified?
• We do. You and I and everyone else. If you see an incorrectly named observation, provide a correct ID. Even if you dont know what it is, if you know that it isnt that, then make an ID to a higher level.
An example. Someone posts an ant and uses the Image Recognition System to make an ID. All our southern African ants will be misidentified by this as North American species. If you notice this, just ID it as "Ant" (iNat will make it Formicidae - Ants: so don't worry about the vloekname), and choose, "I don't know, but it is definitely not North American Ant". The Ant team will then mop these up. If we don't have time during the challenge, we will work through them more leisurely afterwards.

Q? Will you be creating a "place" called Greater Cape Town or something like that for all the observations? Then we can look at that place only for the identification stage.
• That is already done.

The place is - - but that is not really useful, unless you add a time filter for the Challenge
The project is - - and that only shows challenge data, so is ideal. Not only that, but it gives the exact current total for the observations, species and observers.
• And during the identification parties we will be using the Curatorial Tool "Identify", filtered by the project: like so (it is empty now): - merely choose your group (e.g. Ericaceae) and open the tool by clicking on the first card.
We will have both courses and identification parties for those interested. But yes, there is no reason why one cannot work independently at home or coffee shop or with a friend.

Q? If I photograph, say, a Restio that I am not sure about - is it a good idea to take an educated guess as to the species, and which someone can correct if necessary, or to leave the identification as Restio?
• Firstly, in the field, leave it out. Leave identifications until after all your observations are loaded. Unless you are sure and it does not take much time.
• During the identification period: If in doubt leave it out. It depends how much you are not sure, and how many other choices there are. If you are not certain which Restio it is, but it might be gaudichaudiana, then perhaps just ID as "Restio". But if it is either gaudichaudiana or simples, then make the ID and in the comments say - "or possibly simplex".

• Note that anyone can help. We will need people to ID plants to families or genera to help the expert teams make species-level IDs.

Q? Are there any arrangements being made for the identification stage or are we each just going to do what we can when we have time?
• You are welcome to work on your own. But we will be having ID parties. Courses and details will be made available closer to the time.

Q? When getting the total score for each city, what weight is given to the three criteria: number of species, number of observations, number of observers? Surely the number of species should count much more than the others if they want to find the most biodiverse city?
• The challenge is much more than that. There are three separate criteria, and they are not merged. The winning city is for each category, and if a particular city wins more than one of these, then it is the overall winner.
• There are also other criteria reported on, but not on the challenge per se. These are the proportion and number of observations identified, and identified to species. And obvious additional criterion could be the number of identifiers, but these tend to be worldwide and not specific to the City involved. And then of course there are other possible criteria, like taxa (e.g. birds, mammals, insects plants (note that it is unlikely to be to families), fungi (ditto). And also marine vs terrestrial. And also wild versus planted. And additional perhaps: identified to research grade,
And we will probably look at additional criteria in the post-challenge evaluation. But we will summarize these here.

Q? So anything wild goes. Or invasive. Cool
But what about: Anything planted if in a park or Nature Reserve? I think of Strelitzia, Bauhinia, Gardenia, palm trees and oaks to name a few!
Or trees at Radloff Park and the urban open spades? Mostly planted.
And what about the lekker gardens now at Lourensford? Loads of Plectranthus, Dietes, Tulbaghias, etc?
Or the huge Heritage and Ancient Trees, such as the Camphor trees at Vergelegen? And the very huge Yellowwood tree planted yonks ago but planted!

• All count. Just mark them as planted. This will present a problem for the ID process as they wont be "Needs ID" if marked as planted. But we will get around that.
Not only do these count, they are part of our urban biodiversity and must be recorded. Please dont skimp on them. There is no ways we will meet our targets if we only do indigenous plants - the bulbs, annuals and hidden species are just too many: those are for spring! For now, we need all our urban trees and weeds and or champion and heritage species.
So yes. Indigenous - tick! Aliens - tick! Urban plants - tick! Plants planted to beautify our reserves, verges, and parkscapes - tick! (and ditto the animals and fungi!). Remember to mark planted (if you are certain it is planted and has not escaped).

Q? How does the counting work? If I see a chameleon, sunbird, skink, whatever each of the 4 days in my own garden and post an obs thereof each day. How would that count/work? Or for that matter a ibis on the side walk each day!
• That would strictly be cheating. The same chameleon (or even another) in your garden over a few days should count as one observation. But those in your aunt's, or niece's gardens would count as different observations. Similarly if you saw the Ibis in a different block or park or suburb, then those are definitely different observations and can (should?) be posted. Within a nature reserve a few hundred metres would suffice: unless you were monitoring "clumps", in which case each clump would be acceptable. Use your discretion: - distances to a new observation will be much smaller for a millipede than an eagle. .

Q? Hidden localities! We have lots of Red List species in Cape Town. Some 319 threatened and 67 near threatened species - 12% of our plant species. Quite a few of these are on the edge! If iNat obscures these, then they wont show up and count to the city, and that will put us at a considerable disadvantage? What should we do?
• No they will count. To see how look at the map for the City - - and note that the outliers are included. ((This only works for "official iNat" places, and not for places added by observers, so the data will be safe from "mining". Note that this map is all our data to date, not just the challenge data)) So there is no need to devise devious ways of getting our data in: they will all be counted - every single one.

Publicado el febrero 14, 2019 08:07 TARDE por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

15 de febrero de 2019

Cape Town to take part in City Nature Challenge 2019

Cape Town will be participating in the City Nature Challenge for 2019.

This is the first year of the challenge that an African city is taking part (Nairobi - Kenya and Port Harcourt - Nigeria, are also participating in 2019).

Since we are the Mother City, and claim to be one of the most biodiverse cities on Earth, as well as indisputably the "Capital of the Littlest Kingdom", "Biodiversity Capital of the World" and the "Mother of all Biodisasters", it is only right that we put the City of Cape Town squarely on the Nature Map in the City Nature Challenge.

The task is not a small one. Over 150 cities are entering this year. And we are entering autumn, whereas many are in the throws of spring. No matter. We will rise to the challenge. It is up to us to showcase and display our fauna and flora.

The competition will run just after Easter in April from 26-29 April. Please diarize these dates now and make sure that you are in the city and available. We also need to start planning which reserves, beaches, parks and trails we will be exploring during those four days, and what groups we will focus on: birds, plants, insects, herps or fungi, or whatever.

The City of Cape Town’s Biodiversity Management Branch, Environmental Management Department and Table Mountain National Park are both inviting Capetonians to bioblitz our open areas and record everything alive. While the focus is on the wild plants and animals, we also want to record any alien invasives and parkscape inhabitants across the city. The WESSA Friends Groups, and Custodians of Rare and Endangered Wildflowers (CREW) will be helping to coordinate activities in the conservation areas around Cape Town. Please join them on a Bioblitz and help compile species lists for our natural areas - all goggos, animals and plants are game. Please dont forget the school grounds and gardens, churches and halls, and even our houses and buildings: they also teem with wildlife - once you start looking! And the sea! if you dive, sail, sightsee or beachwalk, there is lots to record! And dont forget the night life!

How does it work? Simply take your smartphone and load the iNaturalist app (links at the bottom of this page ). Then sign up to iNaturalist. And you are ready. Do that now! Although the competition is in April, please practice in the meantime, so that you will be slick when the time comes.

All you need to do is make sure that your gps is on and then find something - a plant or animal, or some sign of it like scats, spoor, quills or remains - and take a photograph or two. The iNaturalist App will streamline the process. And send. To save time and data, you can leave the downloading for the evening.

Some rules (sorry there are always rules):
● No people please - definitely no selfies. Your domestic dogs and cats do not count either. Ideally wild animals please, but if in doubt, bag it.
● Use your zoom to take a closeup photo: to qualify we will have to identify your observation (we do that the week afterwards) and small images are impossible: please zoom in as much as possible.
● Only one species per observation. Dont lump them - we need as many as possible.

● Please only post one observation for a species at a place at a time - several photographs are needed for many plants and insects, so keep them on one observation. But if you are going to several venues during the day it is OK to photograph the same species of animals or plants again each time.
● Only observations made within the city limits between midnight and midnight between the 26 and 29 of April will count.

And that is it. Decide on which bioblitzes to join. Make your own teams. Stakeout your favourite natural or city areas. And get ready for the City Nature Challenge 2019. And do a little practising so that you know the ropes for the event.

The competition is worldwide, and over 150 cities are competing in 2019. All will be trying to showcase their nature and encouraging citizen scientists (that is you!) to participate in this endevour. For four days people all around the world interested in nature will be putting their biodiversity onto the map. The competition started between Los Angeles and San Francisco in 2016 (Los Angeles won!). In 2017 it went national in the USA, in 2018 it went international and in 2019 Cape Town is participating. Last year in 68 cities, 17,000 people made 441,000 observations of 18,000 species on those four days (see details). The City Nature Challenge is organized by the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles county and the California Academy of Sciences, and run on iNaturalist which is supported by the California Academy of Sciences and National Geographic.

As we approach the event, we will post more information and material about the City of Cape Town Nature Challenge 2019. Please join this project for updates and bookmark it to see how we are doing (during the event).

Groups on board so far are:

  • City of Cape Town’s Biodiversity Management Branch, Environmental Management Department
  • CREW: Custodians or Rare and Endangered Wildflowers
  • WESSA (Wildlife and Environmental Society of South Africa) Friends of groups
  • Table Mountain National Park
  • Table Mountain Honorary Rangers
  • Kirstenbosch Branch of the Botanical Society of South Africa.
  • Scouts South Africa
  • SURG: Southern Underwater Research Group

We would like to get schools more involved. If you have any ideas, please contact us.

If you would like to participate, please tell us.

Publicado el febrero 15, 2019 08:08 MAÑANA por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 6 comentarios | Deja un comentario

22 de febrero de 2019

Media and Participation.

Organizations pledging support and posting media.

City of Cape Town - coordinated by Biodiversity Branch
Western Cape Scouts
Sun Valley Eco Watch:
Botanical Society of South Africa - Kirstenbosch Branch
Mountain Club
Two Oceans Aquarium


See our latest list of events here


Poster on how to participate - please feel free to use, or modify.





Publicado el febrero 22, 2019 11:35 MAÑANA por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario

26 de febrero de 2019

Leader Boards

Top observers in southern Africa as of today.
(using: - select iconic group from the filters, and click on the species column.

Numbers of "species" in southern Africa (eligible for research grade)

Amphibians (136 species observed)
84 alexanderr

32 jouberth

30 scbc

29 robert_taylor

26 tonyrebelo

Reptiles (428 species observed)
156 alexanderr

117 scbc
99 jouberth

90 toby

89 herpguy
89 nick_schaller

Mammals (400 species observed)
107 tonyrebelo
101 markuslilje
93 joachim
89 henrydelange
87 johnnybirder

Birds (877species observed)
630 markuslilje
422 mr_fab

381 johnnybirder

367 happyasacupcake
363 carmelo_lopez

Fish (794 species observed)
296 nevillea

234 seastung

210 rosepalmer
165 robert_taylor

152 andrewdeacon

152 rowanwattpringle

Molluscs (641 species observed)
132 mr_fab
130 seastung

125 pbsouthwood

103 maddyo
83 diveinn_capetown

Arachnids (433 species observed)
71 wynand_uys

67 jouberth

52 alexanderr

43 sallyslak

43 tuli

Insects ( 4 370 species observed)
1 101 wolfachim

609 riana60

608 magdastlucia

587 ricky_taylor

545 botswanabugs
539 tonyrebelo

513 robert_taylor

454 qgrobler

398 jaheymans

391 bushboy

Plants (14 811 species observed)
5 146 tonyrebelo
3 660 botaneek
3 278 nicky
2 142 vynbos
1 934 mr_fab
1 620 outramps
1 338 linkie

1 272 richardadcock
1 265 gerhardmalan
1 181 peterrwarren

Fungi (543 species observed)
194 lizziepop

167 gabymeyer

133 nicky

122 tonyrebelo
115 colin25

Bacteria and Viruses (18 species observed)
10 lizziepop

9 gabymeyer

5 colin25
4 tonyrebelo

3 nicky

Mosses (60 species observed)
17 tonyrebelo

5 magdastlucia
5 nicky

5 ricky_taylor
4 barnabas

Ferns (168 species observed)
48 tonyrebelo

45 nicky

41 outramps

37 jaheymans

35 ricky_taylor

Gymnosperms (23 species observed)
18 tonyrebelo

9 vynbos

8 nicky

6 muonmo

6 outramps
6 shauns

Monocots (3 552 species observed)
1 103 tonyrebelo

1 023 botaneek

694 nicky

553 vynbos

444 gerhardmalan

Dicots (10 912 species observed)
3 936 tonyrebelo

2 623 botaneek
2 500 nicky

1 561 vynbos

1 477 mr_fab

1 244 outramps

Moths & Butterflies (2 106 species observed)
796 wolfachim

351 qgrobler

347 ricky_taylor
304 magdastlucia

247 mr_fab

Beetles (1 517 species observed)
276 riana60

214 wolfachim

196 fubr

189 botswanabugs

134 magdastlucia

Wasps Bees & Ants (388 species observed)
74 flippie1971
71 tonyrebelo
63 peterslingsby

51 magdastlucia

41 robert_taylor

Bugs (488 species observed)
95 botswanabugs

53 magdastlucia

42 colin25
38 jane_trembath

33 tonyrebelo

Publicado el febrero 26, 2019 10:48 MAÑANA por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario