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Pato Norteño Anas platyrhynchos

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anikashah123

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Julio 27, 2013 10:03 AM EDT

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anikashah123

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Julio 19, 2017 02:00 PM EDT

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Iguana Verde Iguana iguana

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Marzo 22, 2013 11:30 AM EDT

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Mangosta Enana Helogale parvula

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anikashah123

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Agosto 2, 2012 05:00 AM EDT

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Macaca de Madras Macaca radiata

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anikashah123

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Agosto 21, 2017 03:55 AM EDT

Descripción

Scientific & Common Name
Imaged above is the Macaca radiata, or more commonly known as the Bonnet Macaque (Erinjery et al., 2017).

Habitat & Geographic Region
These photographs were captured on August 21, 2017 at 3:55 a.m. EDT in Kerala, India (10.053801, 76.829402). The observed macaque was on a ledge that partitioned a road and vast forestry, at altitude. Bonnet macaques have a broad geographic distribution across southern peninsular India, which includes Kerala where this wild macaque was observed (Kumar, Radhakrishna, & Sinha, 2011). More specifically, this range extends from the south up to the eastern Godavari River and to the Tapti River, westbound (Kumar, Radhakrishna, & Sinha, 2011). A low frequency of bonnet macaques reside in dry deciduous or evergreen forests, particularly in the Western Ghats, a mountainous range in South India (Kumara & Singh, 2004). However, in response to human colonization, the majority have adapted to prefer human populated habitats, such as agricultural fields along roads and tourist sites (Erinjery et al., 2017).

Size/Weight & Lifespan
Bonnet macaques have diverging swirls of dark hair from the middle of their head that extend to the periphery, as is implied by their name, which distinguishes them from other macaques (Daisy Mythili et al., 2005). Their body size ranges from 35-60cm, with a tail length of 2/3 this size (Davi, 2017). Females typically weigh 3.9-5kg, whereas males who are much larger, can weigh up to 8kg (Davi, 2017; Sugiyama, 1971). Wild bonnet macaques will often survive until 20-25 years old, but if raised in captivity can live up to 5-10 years longer (Rao et al., 1998). Predators, illness or human conflicts account for this decreased lifespan of wild versus captive bonnet macaques (Rao et al., 1998).

Diet
Considered omnivores, these macaques will consume a variety of small animals and plant based items, such as fruits (Sugiyama, 1971). Due to the close proximity bonnet macaques have with humans, they often consume leftover human food or raid nearby agricultural fields (Kumara, Kumar, & Singh, 2010). For macaques that are situated in forests, far from humans, their primary food source consists of fruits, figs, acacia leaves and insects like grasshoppers (Sugiyama, 1971).

Reproduction & Communication
Breeding peaks from September-November, however mating has been observed year-round (Sugiyama, 1971). At 3 years old, females will reach sexual maturity, while males fully mature at 4-5 years of age (Silk, 1988). Gestation will last about 5 months per offspring, with an interbirth interval of 1-2 years (Silk, 1988). Bonnet macaques exhibit a polygynandry mating system, where both sexes have many partners and older macaques are more dominant (Cooper, Aureli, & Singh, 2004). Samuels, Silk, & Rodman (1984) demonstrate that dominant males tend to mate more with dominant females than adolescent males do and thus have increased mating success. Prior to copulation, courting males will first smack their lips, grind their teeth and lift a female’s tail to participate in sniffing (Sugiyama, 1971). Bonnet macaques use auditory and visual cues, such as grinning and tongue clicking noises, to communicate affection (Rao et al., 1998). Also, using high frequency alarm calls they are able to warn others of potential predators (Sugiyama, 1971).

Predation
Common predators of bonnet macaques include leopards, hyenas, pythons and humans too (Ramakrishnan & Coss, 2001). They are able to limit predation risk by residing in groups to increase their ability to identify predators (Sugiyama, 1971). Similar to most wild species nowadays, humans threaten their survival due to hunting, car collisions or vegetation decline due to urban expansion (Erinjery et al., 2017). Interestingly, it has been observed that bonnet macaques tend to select high branches in canopies, that overlook water, to sleep in, to reduce predation risk at night when they are most vulnerable (Ramakrishnan & Coss, 2001).

Conservation Status
These macaques are listed as least concern (Erinjery et al., 2017). Least concern is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as an abundant and widespread species in its given locale, thus low conservation efforts are put forth to help this species (IUCN, 2008). However, this status requires reconsideration because intrusive rhesus macaques, usually limited to the north, have recently expanded their distribution by 24, 565 km^2 towards the south. As a result, they have been outcompeting bonnet macaques for food/habitats (Erinjery et al., 2017).

Did You Know?
Unlike other macaques, sexual swellings are not present in female bonnet macaques, thus their sexual receptivity is not visually expressed. Instead, according to Rahaman & Parthasarathy (1971) it is hypothesized that males rely on olfactory senses to determine if females are in estrus, before attempting to mate, traditionally done through the aforementioned sniffing behaviour! Surprisingly, observational research also demonstrates that only aged and dominant bonnet macaques, not juveniles, will yawn when stressed or lethargic (Rahaman & Parthasarathy, 1968).

References

Cooper, M. A., Aureli, F., & Singh, M. (2004). Between-group encounters among bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 56(3), 217–227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-004-0779-4

Daisy Mythili, M., Vyas, R., Susama Patra, S., Nair, S. c., Akila, G., Sujatha, R., & Gunasekaran, S. (2005). Normal hematological indices, blood chemistry and histology and ultrastructure of pancreatic islets in the wild Indian bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata radiata). Journal of Medical Primatology, 34(1), 35–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0684.2004.00089.x

Davi, C. R. (2017). New England Primate Conservatory: Bonnet Macaque. Retrieved October 19, 2017, from http://www.neprimateconservancy.org/bonnet-macaque.html

Erinjery, J. J., Kumar, S., Kumara, H. N., Mohan, K., Dhananjaya, T., Sundararaj, P., … Singh, M. (2017). Losing its ground: A case study of fast declining populations of a “least-concern” species, the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). PLoS ONE, 12(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182140

IUCN. (2008). Macaca radiata: Singh, M., Kumar, A. & Molur, S.: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12558A3357748 [Data set]. International Union for Conservation of Nature. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T12558A3357748.en

Kumar, R., Radhakrishna, S., & Sinha, A. (2011). Of Least Concern? Range Extension by Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Threatens Long-Term Survival of Bonnet Macaques (M. radiata) in Peninsular India. International Journal of Primatology, 32(4), 945–959. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-011-9514-y

Kumara, H. N., Kumar, S., & Singh, M. (2010). Of how much concern are the “least concern” species? Distribution and conservation status of bonnet macaques, rhesus macaques and Hanuman langurs in Karnataka, India. Primates, 51(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-009-0168-8

Kumara, H. N., & Singh, M. (2004). Distribution and Abundance of Primates in Rain Forests of the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India and the Conservation of Macaca silenus. International Journal of Primatology, 25(5), 1001–1018. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000043348.06255.7f

Rahaman, H., & Parthasarathy, M. D. (1968). The expressive movements of the bonnet macaque. Primates, 9(3), 259–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730973

Rahaman, H. and Parthasarathy, M.D. (1971). The role of the olfactory signals in the mating behaviour of bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata). Communications in Behavioral Biology 6: 97-104.

Ramakrishnan, U., & Coss, R. G. (2001). Strategies used by bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) to reduce predation risk while sleeping. Primates, 42(3), 193–206. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02629636

Rao, A. J., Ramesh, V., Ramachandra, S. G., Krishnamurthy, H. N., Ravindranath, N., & Moudgal, N. R. (1998). Growth and reproductive parameters of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Primates, 39(1), 97–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02557748

Samuels, A., Silk, J. B., & Rodman, P. S. (1984). Changes in the dominance rank and reproductive behaviour of male bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Animal Behaviour, 32(4), 994–1003. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(84)80212-2

Silk, J. B. (1988). Maternal Investment in Captive Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata). The American Naturalist, 132(1), 1–19.

Sugiyama, Y. (1971). Characteristics of the social life of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Primates, 12(3–4), 247–266. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730414

Fotos / Sonidos

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anikashah123

Fecha

Julio 20, 2016 02:30 PM EDT
Fuentes:: Átomo