Walking gaits in Cervidae: deer tend to cross-walk, as opposed to the ambling typical of many bovids, part 2: Odocoileinae

...continued from https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/91548-walking-gaits-in-cervidae-deer-tend-to-cross-walk-as-opposed-to-the-ambling-typical-of-many-bovids-part-1#

Capreolus capreolus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.istockphoto.com/video/roe-deer-in-forest-capreolus-capreolus-wild-roe-deer-in-nature-gm1258088372-368901841

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/199708491

cross-walking:

https://www.google.com.au/search?sca_esv=f2adb3232492c0ce&sxsrf=ACQVn09Tjjrr9IEYFOVSCMyxOX02LhQHPQ:1712372277510&q=Roe+deer+walking&tbm=vid&source=lnms&prmd=ivsnmbtz&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwif0cvqy6yFAxVY8zgGHelGB78Q0pQJegQIChAB&biw=1004&bih=549&dpr=2.7#fpstate=ive&vld=cid:09951b84,vid:v0Txa1m6x7M,st:0

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200526626

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200529744

https://www.dreamstime.com/roe-deer-doe-walking-meadow-side-view-winter-capreolus-sunrise-wild-mammal-brown-fur-ears-moving-cold-image171306341

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/video/clip-1107586537-roe-deer-walking-grassy-field-on-cloudy

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/198722454

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/198151250

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/video/clip-1103477551-roe-deer-buck-walking-on-grass-leaving

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/video/clip-1083644467-roe-deer-buck-walking-away-on-meadow

https://www.alamy.com/roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-buck-with-big-antlers-covered-in-velvet-walking-wild-animal-in-winter-roebuck-sheding-velvet-image245974877.html

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/204763226

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/203396739

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/201018719

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200007095

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/199210578

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196991254

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196921690

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196750115 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196750113 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196750111

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196499529

Capreolus pygargus

semi-cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200166126

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200226838

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/165683650

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/140516971

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/130955769

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54859342

cross-walking while wading:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/161169776

cross-walking through deep snow:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/144851337

Odocoileus hemionus columbianus

semi cross-walking:

https://dpa730eaqha29.cloudfront.net/myedmondsnews/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/DSC_5193.jpg

https://www.istockphoto.com/video/deer-grazing-in-the-summit-area-of-the-olympic-national-park-washington-usa-gm1330945675-414222727

https://www.istockphoto.com/video/deer-grazing-in-the-summit-area-of-the-olympic-national-park-washington-usa-gm1330981359-414249919

Odocoileus hemionus hemionus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/151441827

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/153380171

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/182313300

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/168885353

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/161671222

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/96031618

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75142350

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/64994632

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/35272267

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9075740

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8028821

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8736525

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/189540198

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/204305029

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/image-photo/buck-deer-walks-across-highway-on-111051494

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/202004530

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/190620659

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/179621347

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/166485874

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/161671220

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/161266256

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/156841911

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/151840118

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/151840115

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/151441917

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149782171

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149782168

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/145480214

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/143050642

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/141660923

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/139533281

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/131760773

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/126746210

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/121896584

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/108006039

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104745347

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101383253

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/97075871

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/93931119

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71169031

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67847612

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/58985402

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/55758196

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54936480

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54582566

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54358694

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/50999255

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/35796761

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/29877618

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20794403

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15346766

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/4126822

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36048874 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36048227

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36167603 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36170547 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36167946 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36167597

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100968396 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100968394 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100968393

cross-walking while wading:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/4828950

Odocoileus virginianus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.istockphoto.com/video/whitetail-deer-9pt-buck-walks-across-a-frozen-field-gm1412980972-462212996

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/video/clip-1025463410-large-swamp-buck-white-tail-deer-walks-across

https://stock.adobe.com/images/walking-whitetail-deer-in-morning-sun/276397346

https://es.123rf.com/photo_32305362_deer-walking.html

https://www.fieldandstream.com/hunting/whitetail-deer-travels-200-miles/

https://dpa730eaqha29.cloudfront.net/myedmondsnews/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/DSC_5193.jpg

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/image-photo/group-whitetailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-crossing-1511428202

Blastoceros dichotomus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/video/clip-33283189-marsh-deer-blastocerus-dichotomus-calmly-walking-beside

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/video/clip-33283579-marsh-deer-blastocerus-dichotomus-calmly-walking-beside

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8996008

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196758832

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/170839025

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/53881033

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/42970432

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/41561276

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37990878

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34235604

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/28863071

cross-walking while wading:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/102046322

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/182656187

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/97958718

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/93946424

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34574865

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/32539691

Hippocamelus bisulcus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/168732894

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/61948658

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/56866303

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/142966285

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/35047742

cross-walking while wading:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/145285980

Ozotoceros bezoarticus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/188266170

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/127628739

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/116406102

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/173585378

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/165578454

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/127628734

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/122319144

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/122317603

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/53328279

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/47876146

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37990891

Mazama americana

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/119498924

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/138744138

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/131921519

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71754872

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/204020861

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/203355223

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196351425

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194197274 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194197204

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/121656531

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37658132

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/23438426

Mazama gouazoubira

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/202457732

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/201190211

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200765159

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/157219695

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148936440

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148341817

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/143891805

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/139570557

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/110835932

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72306746

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67207093

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36736828

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148448278

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148448279

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/184029864

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/199002954

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/197787941

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196664385

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194224925

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/193392785

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/192166170

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/191960797

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/189964790

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/162172015

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/152167632

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/147677512

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/139184975

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/137344367

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/134508704

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/131522623

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/123754502

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/118417376

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67065366

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/65598410

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/57609044

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37614428

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18507794

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15860143

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15860485

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9420813

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9072964

Mazama nemorivaga

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148931933

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/147831648

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/103476694

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/103476646

Mazama temama

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74340594

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/176219423

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/203504965

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/177935431

Alces alces

semi-cross-walking:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUVBr_jDBcQ

https://www.deviantart.com/nini1965/art/A-Young-Bull-Moose-Walking-in-a-Field-917220578

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/profile-bull-moose-walking-onto-dirt-116525839

https://a57.foxnews.com/global.fncstatic.com/static/managed/img/fn2/video/876/493/edge_moose_052014.jpg?ve=1&tl=1

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/bull-moose-gm1055977806-282201912

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/walking-bull-moose-randy-straka.html

https://www.alamy.com/bull-moose-denali-national-park-preserve-alaska-united-states-of-america-a-unique-optimised-version-of-an-image-by-nps-ranger-jw-frank-credit-npsjacob-w-frank-image454466690.html?imageid=DC229BEB-798B-4807-AFC7-245D832C911F&p=1837101&pn=1&searchId=acbc6be48e9684687a1dabcb59018a60&searchtype=0

https://pixels.com/featured/bull-moose-crossing-river-jack-bell.html?product=wood-print

cross-walking: see A new observation on gaits in the maternal defensive behaviour in the moose (Alces alces)#

Rangifer tarandus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.shutterstock.com/da/image-photo/sweden-beautiful-deer-midst-spring-tundra-1265271187

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-reindeer-walking-on-snow-83046876.html

https://www.alamy.com/reindeer-walking-on-the-road-in-norway-image339946013.html

https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/956135/view/reindeer-male-walking-across-beach-in-winter-iceland

https://www.westend61.de/en/photo/RUNF04398/reindeer-with-big-antlers-walking-on-road-nordkapp-norway

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194973788

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/188771774

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/176450543

Rangifer tarandus caribou

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14285540

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/96124667

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/108555074

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/188361965

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104384160

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34116020

cross-walking:

The following series of photos shows the footfall-sequence: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/188323834

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/189059963 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/196236142

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38014346

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12796121

Rangifer tarandus granti

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/154738951

Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/112211957

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54094260

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8533464

Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus

semi cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34390801

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/204713654

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/203494818

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/174623820

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/173065059

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/147914529

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/139973692

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/69812260

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/35598095

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8606357

cross-walking:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/133664259

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34390803

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/27762495

Pudu puda

semi cross-walking:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vea0C2YnKW8

Hydropotes inermis

semi cross-walking:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75UJqMLIHrQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xg0tRDdWNQY

cross-walking while wading:

https://www.vecteezy.com/photo/27808124-chinese-water-deer-walking-across-shallow-marshes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjJJN9XhuyU

to be continued in https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/91587-walking-gaits-in-cervidae-deer-tend-to-cross-walk-as-opposed-to-the-ambling-typical-of-many-bovids-part-3-discussion#...

Publicado el marzo 31, 2024 04:19 TARDE por milewski milewski

Comentarios

Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

@beartracker Would you agree?

The following track (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/198845735 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/197264836 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/197305929) of Capreolus capreolus are revealing of the walking gait, as follows.

Firstly, the larger hoofprint is that of the foreleg.

Secondly, a feature of the cross-walk in ruminants is that the hind foot lands in approximately the same place as the fore foot, i.e. there is at least partial superimposition.

In the cross-walk and semi cross-walk, as the hind foot swings forward, the fore foot gives way at the last moment, avoiding collision between hind and fore.

Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

I don't know that the hind is the larger print. Typically in ruminants, the hind is a bit smaller than the front track.

We call the superimposition indirect register. It's direct register if the hind falls totally inside the front track. I agree about the timing of footfalls.

Publicado por beartracker hace 4 meses

@beartracker

Many thanks for the correction. I agree that the fore is typically the larger, but I thought that perhaps this is reversed in those species with high hindquarters. Perhaps I will find a way to check this...

Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

@beartracker

I asked AI and here is its answer, agreeing with you:

https://www.perplexity.ai/search/In-ungulates-the-IDX3e81mQQ6Ft8afKyjGhQ

Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

Cool!

Publicado por beartracker hace 4 meses

@beartracker

The following pair of photos illustrates a crucial difference between a cross-walk, typical of deer such as Odocoileus hemionus hemionus (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/107166688), and an amble, typical of 'plains-game' bovids such as Aepyceros melampus (https://stock.adobe.com/images/male-impala-side-view-species-aepyceros-melampus-the-common-african-antelope-of-kruger-national-park-in-south-africa-c/240572540).

Please focus on the fore and hind legs on the right-hand side of the figure in each case.

In a cross-walk (here shown in the Rocky Mountain mule deer), the hind foot lands in the track of the fore foot, which gives way just in time to avoid collision (please slow the playback in https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XRhlvmAMpk).

(The following show that this is true even for juveniles, despite their proportionately long legs: compare https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75142123 with https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36167595.)

By contrast, in an amble (here shown in the common impala), the hind foot lands far ahead of the track of the fore foot, which has given way so early that it has allowed an extended forward-swing of the hind (please slow the playback in https://www.istockphoto.com/video/beautiful-and-graceful-impala-antelope-walking-in-savannah-gm932522106-255537892).

This difference in gaits is significant, because it allows a greater stride-length - and a corresponding advantage in energy-economy - in the amble than in the cross-walk.

Odocoileus walks in a way (= cross-walk) adapted mainly in keeping with cover-dependence/nocturnality, an ability to 'freeze' when alarmed mid-stride, stability on unstable/frozen ground, and a habit of smoothly converting to a trot (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/55935361) when hastening the walk.

Aepyceros walks in a way (= amble) adapted mainly in keeping with obligate gregariousness, diurnality, an abandonment of 'freezing' and other modes of concealment, reliance on firm ground, and an inability to trot - instead accelerating from walking straight to galloping.

The difference is all the more significant because the two taxa featured here are similar in body size and proportions, and are approximate ecological counterparts on different continents.

What is underappreciated - even by those relatively familiar with gaits - is that the walking gait of the common impala is identical to that of giraffes (Giraffa).

Publicado por milewski hace 3 meses
Publicado por milewski hace 3 meses

The amble would be what we call an overstep walk. The hind oversteps the front track/foot.

I agree. Odocoileus can 'freeze' with three legs on the ground, which gives them a stable tripod to stand on. They can stay that way longer.

Publicado por beartracker hace 3 meses

@beartracker

Which mammals in North America have an overstep walk?

Publicado por milewski hace 3 meses

Canines, felines, ungulates. Others can perform that gait too.

Publicado por beartracker hace 3 meses

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