22 de junio de 2022

Systema Dipterorum's Checklist of Helina (Diptera: Muscidae) north of Mexico and potentially

The genus Helina has been called the second largest genus in Muscidae., with well over 400 species in the world (Wang et al., 2004), It is also one of the difficult to recognize genera of muscids along with Phaonia and Mydaea. The biology of Helina species is poorly studied. Many revisionary works lack any mention at all on biology, but most species are probably detritivores as larvae, living under bark, in rotting wood, in tree holes, in vertebrate nests, and more.
No catalogue for Muscidae exists for the Nearctic region after Huckett in Stone et al. (1965). Since then, several changes could have occured according to Systema Dipterorum. A catalogue to Neotropical Muscidae was created by de Carvalho et al. (2005). Quadrularia is now a part of Helina, transferring annosa, "laetifica" (=evecta), "laetifica var. nivalis" (=flavisquama), and "punctata " Stein (=steini) to Helina. Helina laetifica is considered to be a synonym of H. evecta, but its variety known as nivalis is considered one of H. flavisquama by Systema Dipterorum, which conflicts with BugGuide. Helina steini is proposed by Pont (2013) for Helina puctata Stein. Helina flavisquama is also now considered the new name for Helina basalis Zetterstedt. Helina duplicata is now a synonym of the Holarctic species Helina reversio, the latter thus being an introduced species not recognized until recently. Helina troene var. fulviventris is treated as a full species distinct from troene. Eupogonomyia neoborealis is transferred to Helina. Helina platykarenos and polychaeta are described from California by Huckett (196). Helina punctata Robineau-Desvoidy is a synonym of Helina sexmaculata. Helina rothi became a synonym of H. subvittata. Ariciella flavicornis is transferred to Helina and its new name Helina rubripalpis is delivered by Pont (1972). Helina setifer is described by Huckett (1965). Helina snyderi is described from Wyoming by Steystkal (1966). Once again, these are all from the perspective of Systema Dipterorum and often these changes are not accepted among workers in reality
Additional species were included in this checklist that are not known north of Mexico, but are implied in some way by Systema Dipterorum that they could reach into north. The species are included if the range notes detail "NE: Mexico" (not NT: Mexico) with NE meaning Nearctic and NT meaning Neotropical or something more explicit. These species are Helina caneo (range notes: "(NE: NE) Mexico"), H. meraca (range notes: "(NT: NT NE) Mexico"), mulcata (range notes: "(NT: NT NE) Mexico; ?North America"), parvula (range notes: "(NE: NE PA NT AF) Mexico"), sera (its synonym, H. arroya has range notes: "NE"), and H. tarsalis (range notes: "(NE: NE) Mexico"). Helina depuncta and H. refusa were listed in Stone et al. (1965) with strong doubts as to their Nearctic occurences. There remains no reason to believe they occur in the Nearctic.
In order to key or identify these specimens, several keys are needed at hand: Wulp (1896), Malloch (1921), Snyder (1949b), Huckett (1965), and more. Original descriptions may also need to be consulted, especially for specimens from subtropical areas. Snyder (1949) is the major revision to use. In that paper, H. rothi is H. subvittata, H. anceps is nigribasis, and H. obscuripes is cothurnata, according to Systema Dipterorum.

Checklist (67 species):
Genus Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 493
Helina abiens (Stein, 1898: 193) - Arizona, North Dakota to s. Quebec, s. toN.C. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Spilogaster abiens Stein, 1898: 193
Helina algonquina Malloch, 1922: 96 - North Carolina,Florida References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina annosa (Zetterstedt, 1838: 663) - Alaska to Labr.,s. to California and New York,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1921), Snyder (1949a)
= Anthomyza annosa Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza annosa Zetterstedt, 1838: 663
= Aricia bicolor Pokorny, 1889: 549
= Aricia multisetosa Strobl, 1898: 238
Helina barpana (Walker, 1849: 933) - Nova Scotia
= Anthomyia barpana Walker, 1849: 933
Helina bicolorata (Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 253) - British Columbia, Washington,California References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia bicolorata Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 253
= Mydaea aperta Stein, 1920: 28
Helina bispinosa Malloch, 1920: 142 - British Columbia toMan., s. toCalif. and New Mexico References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina bohemani (Ringdahl, 1916: 235) - British Columbia to Manitoba, s.to California and New Mexico, also Illinois, n. Europe,Russia References: Snyder (1949b)
= Helina subeiensis Ma & Wang, 1992: 407
= Mydaea bohemani Ringdahl, 1916: 235
Helina canadensis Snyder, 1949b: 136 - Quebec,New York
Helina caneo Snyder, 1941: 10 - Mexico
Helina cinerella (Wulp, 1867: 150) - Alaska to Labr., s. to Calif.and Michigan,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (as vanderwulpi)
= Aricia cinerella Wulp, 1867: 150
= Aricia vanderwulpi Schnabl, 1888: 387
= Aricia propinqua Strøm, 1896: 239
= Aricia brevis Stein, 1898: 180
= Aricia menechma Pandellé, 1898: 56
= Helina aldrichi Snyder, 1949: 122
= Helina tuleskovi Lavciev, 1968: 63
Helina consimilata Malloch, 1920: 144 - Washington, Colorado,Wisconsin to New Hampshire andMass. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina cothurnata (Rondani, 1866: 116) - Alaska to N.W.T., s. to California and New Hampshire, Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (as obscuripes)
= Spilogaster cothurnata Rondani, 1866: 116
= Anthomyza obscuripes Zetterstedt of Stein, 1916: 65
Helina cruciata Snyder, 1941: 9 - Arizona References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina evecta (Harris, 1780: 125) - Alaska to Nfld., s. to California and Tennessee, cent. Amer.,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1921), Snyder (1949a)
= Musca evectus Harris, 1780: 125
= Musca lucorum Fallén, 1823: 55
= Mydina laetifica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 500
= Mydina soror Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 501
= Anthomyia pylone Walker, 1849: 928
=Anthomyia incerta Walker, 1853: 354
= Anthomyia solita Walker, 1853: 354
= Spilogaster venosa Rondani, 1877: 98
= Aricia graefenbergiana Schnabl, 1888: 447
= Aricia mohyleviensis Schnabl, 1888: 449
= Aricia obscurataeformis Schnabl, 1888: 383
= Hyetodesia abacta Giglio-Tos, 1893: 8
= Hyetodesia abdicta Giglio-Tos, 1893: 8
= Mydaea vulnifera Villeneuve, 1927: 266
= Spilogaster limbovenosa Hennig, 1961: 228
Helina exilis (Stein, 1920: 30) - Wisconsin, Michigan,New York,Quebec,Connecticut References: Snyder (1949b)
= Mydaea exilis Stein, 1920: 30
Helina flavisquama (Zetterstedt, 1849: 3287) - Alaska to Nunavut,s. to California and Labrador,Newfoundland,Palaearctic. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyza basalis Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza basalis Zetterstedt, 1838: 663
= Anthomyza nivalis Zetterstedt, 1838: 663
= Aricia flavisquama Zetterstedt, 1849: 3287
= Aricia setigera Stein, 1900: 305
= Mydaea setitibia Stein, 1914: 19
= Mydaea flavocalyptrata Stein, 1920: 31
= Helina hylemyioides Malloch, 1920: 137
Helina floridensis Snyder, 1949: 126 - Florida References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina fulvisquama (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1491) - Alaska to Labrador, s. to California and New Hampshire,Lapland, n.Europe,Russia References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia fulvisquama Zetterstedt, 1845: 1491
= Phaonia arctica Schnabl & Becker, 1915: 50
= Helina tuberculata Malloch, 1919: 277
Helina fulviventris (Bigot, 1885: 291) - B.C.s. to Calif. References: Snyder (1949b) (as synonym of troene)
= Spilogaster fulviventris Bigot, 1885: 291
= Mydaea varia Stein, 1920: 36
= Helina troene var. fulviventris Bigot of Stone et al., 1965
Helina garretti Snyder, 1949: 140 - British Columbia
Helina griseogaster Snyder, 1949: 138 = Colorado
Helina humilis (Stein, 1920: 32) - British Columbia to California, Arizona, Wyo.,andColo. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Mydaea humilis Stein, 1920: 32
Helina johnsoni Malloch, 1920: 141 - Wisconsin,Quebec and N.S., s.toGa. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina keremeosa Snyder, 1949: 156 - California References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina lasiosterna Snyder, 1941: 9 - Mexico; North America References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina laxifrons (Zetterstedt, 1860: 6200) - Alaska to Que., s. to Utah and Georgia,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia laxifrons Zetterstedt, 1860: 6200
= Aricia curvipes Schnabl, 1888: 383
= Aricia nigripennis Schnabl, 1888: 378
= Spilogaster nigricans Stein, 1898: 198
= Mydaea tinctipennis Stein, 1916: 69
Helina linearis Malloch, 1920: 139 - Washington, Alberta, Montana,Minnesota to Quebec, s. toIll. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina longicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838: 678) - Yukon Territory, Nunavut,Manitoba,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (notes), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyza longicornis Zetterstedt, 1837: 44 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza longicornis Zetterstedt, 1838: 678
= Spilogaster angulicornis Pokorny, 1889: 555
Helina luteisquama (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1492) - Alaskato Nunavut, s. to Manitoba and Labrador,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia luteisquama Zetterstedt, 1845: 1492
Helina maculipennis (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1475) - Alaska, British Columbia and Alberta, s. to California and New Mexico, alsoMan.,Labrador, Brazil, Europe, Asia References: Snyder (1949b) (as neopoeciloptera)
= Helina neopoeciloptera Malloch, 1920: 139
= Helina poeciloptera Malloch, 1918: 271
Helina marguerita Snyder, 1949: 137 - Yukon Territory, Nunavut, California,Quebec, Ontario,Labrador References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina meraca (Wulp, 1896: 325) - Mexico References: Wulp (1896) (as Limnophora), Pont (1972) (not easily accessible), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Limnophora meraca Wulp, 1896: 325
= Helina meraca>/i> Wulp of Pont, 1972 (new combination)
Helina mulcata
(Giglio-Tos, 1893: 7) - Mexico; ?North America References: Wulp (1896) (as Hyetodesia), Stein (1918) (notes) (as Mydaea), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Hyetodesia mulcata Giglio-Tos, 1893: 7
Helina multiseriata Malloch, 1922: 95 - British Columbia and Alberta,s. to California andColo. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina neoborealis Snyder, 1949: 122 - Alaska, Nunavut (Victoria and Ellesmere Is.),California,Colorado References: Huckett (1965) (as Eupogonomyia)
= Eupogonomyia neoborealis Snyder of Stone et al., 1965
Helina nigribasis Malloch, 1920: 143 - Alaska to Arizona, Wisconsin & Illinois to Maryland and Labrador, s. to Florida. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyza anceps Zetterstedt of Stein, 1904: 449
Helina nigripennis (Walker, 1849: 929) - Alaska to California and Colorado, also Manitoba to Newfoundland, s.toMich. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia nigripennis Walker, 1849: 929
= Aricia nitida Stein, 1898: 185
= Spilogaster crepuscularis Stein, 1898: 201
Helina nigrita Malloch, 1920: 139 - Alberta toMan., s. toCalif. and New Mexico References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina nudibasis Snyder, 1949: 147 - New Mexico
Helina obscurata (Meigen, 1826: 89) - Alaska to Labrador,s. to California, Illinois, and New York,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia obscurata Meigen, 1826: 89
= Mydina fuliginosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Mydina vernalis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Anthomyza sahlbergi Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza sahlbergi Zetterstedt, 1838: 664
= Anthomyza veterana Zetterstedt, 1838: 662
= Aricia duplaris Zetterstedt, 1845: 1411
= Aricia sordidiventris Zetterstedt, 1845: 1416
= Anthomyia detracta Walker, 1853: 122
= Helina nasoni Malloch, 1920: 138
Helina obscuratoides (Schnabl, 1887: 347) - Alberta, Manitoba,South Dakota,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia obscuratidea Pandellé, 1898: 59
= Aricia obscuratoides Schnabl, 1887: 347
Helina obscurinervis (Stein, 1898: 199) - Oregon, California, Kansas to Quebec, s. to Texas andFla. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Spilogaster obscurinervis Stein, 1898: 199
Helina orbitaseta (Stein, 1898: 186) - Wash.to California andAriz., alsoMo. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia orbitaseta/i> Stein, 1898: 186
Helina oregonensis
(Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 254) - British Columbia,Idaho,Utah References: Snyder (1949b) (notes)
= Aricia oregonensis Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 254
Helina parvula (Wulp, 1896: 321) - Mexico References: Snyder (1941), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Spilogaster parvula Wulp, 1896: 321
Helina pectinata (Johannsen, 1916: 392) - British Columbia to Manitoba, s. toCalif. and Arkansas, also Que.to N.S. toN.Y. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Mydaea pectinata Johannsen, 1916: 392
= Mydaea biseriata Stein, 1920: 29
= Helina mimetica Malloch, 1920: 142
Helina platykarenos Huckett, 1966: 286 - California
Helina polychaeta Huckett, 1966: 288 - California
Helina procedens (Walker, 1861: 315) - Mexico; North America References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia procedens Walker, 1861: 315
= Spilogaster uniseta Stein, 1898: 192
Helina reversio (Harris, 1780: 146) - Alaska to Nfld., s. to California and New York,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1921) (as duplicata), Huckett (1965) (as duplicata)
= Musca reversio Harris, 1780: 146
= Anthomyia compuncta Wiedemann, 1817: 80
= Anthomyia duplicata Meigen, 1826: 92
= Helina tibialis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 494
= Mydina claripennis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 497
= Mydina communis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 497
= Mydina limpidipennis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Mydina nigricans Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 497
= Mydina nigripes Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Anthomyia quadripunctata Brullé, 1833: 315
= Spilogaster caesia Macquart, 1835: 296
= Spilogaster quadrivittata Macquart, 1844: 163
= Anthomyia decedens Walker, 1853: 121
= Anthomyia fixa Walker, 1853: 121
= Anthomyia infixa Walker, 1853: 132
= Anthomyza vilis Zetterstedt, 1845: 1669
= Anthomyza flavogrisea Zetterstedt, 1860: 6275
= Aricia prospinosa Pandellé, 1898: 56
= Mydaea multimaculata Schnabl, 1911: 95
= Mydaea tagojana Santos Abreu, 1976: 115
Helina rubripalpis (Wulp, 1896: 320) - Mexico, Costa Rica; Texas References: Wulp (1896) (as Spilogaster), Stein (1920) (as Mydaea), Pont (1972), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Spilogaster rubripalpis Wulp, 1896: 320
= Ariciella flavicornis Malloch, 1918: 66
= Helina flavicornis Malloch, 1918: 66
Helina rufitibia (Stein, 1898: 181) - Alberta to Quebec, s. to California andGa. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia rufitibia Stein, 1898: 181
= Hebecnema rufitibia Stein, 1908: 95
= Helina rufitibialis Hennig, 1957: 152
= Hebecnema luteoligaster Santos Abreu, 1976: 75
= Hebecnema nitidiuscula Santos Abreu, 1976: 76
= Hebecnema thoracica Santos Abreu, 1976: 76
Helina sera (Giglio-Tos, 1893: 9) - Mexico References: Snyder (1949c), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Spilogaster sera Giglio-Tos, 1893: 9
= Helina arroya Snyder, 1949: 6
Helina setifer Huckett, 1965: 256 - Yukon Territory
Helina sexmaculata (Preyssler, 1791: 88) - South Dakota and Minnesota, s. to Colorado and Missouri, Massachusetts to Georgia,Palaearctic, New Zealand References: Snyder (1949b) (as uliginosa)
= Musca deduco Harris, 1780: 125
= Musca sexmaculata Preyssler, 1791: 88
= Musca uliginosa Fallén, 1825: 81
= Rohrella punctata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 492
= Anthomyza flavicoxa Zetterstedt, 1860: 6277
Helina spinicosta (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1641) - Alaska,Nunavut, n. Europe, n.USAS.R. References: Snyder (1949b) (notes), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyza spinicosta Zetterstedt, 1845: 1641
= Anthomyza congenulata Zetterstedt, 1860: 6266
= Ecliponeura spinicosta Emden, 1941: 257
= Helina spinicostata Pont, 1980: 736
Helina spinilamellata Malloch, 1920: 140 - Montana References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina spinosa (Walker, 1849: 926) - Alaska to Labrador, s. toCalif. and New Mexico References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia spinosa Walker, 1849: 926
= Aricia latifrontata Malloch, 1918: 270
Helina spuria Malloch, 1920: 144 - Oregon, Colorado References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina squalens (Zetterstedt, 1838: 669) - Alaska to Labr., s. to Manitoba, n.w.Europe References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyza borealis Zetterstedt, 1837: 44
= Anthomyza squalens Zetterstedt, 1837: 43
= Anthomyza borealis Zetterstedt, 1838: 679
= Anthomyza squalens Zetterstedt, 1838: 669
Helina snyderi Steyskal, 1966: 177 - Wyoming
Helina steini Pont, 2013
= Aricia punctata Stein, 1898: 182
= Quadrularia punctata Stein of Stone et al., 1965
Helina subvittata (Séguy, 1923: 336) - Europe: (Andorra), Russia: Asia: Japan; Alaska to Labrador, s. to California and New York,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (as rothi)
= Helina rothi Ringdahl, 1939: 150
= Phaonia subvittata Séguy, 1923: 336
Helina tarsalis (Stein, 1918: 220) - Mexico References: Stein (1920) (as Mydaea), Pont (1972) (not easily accessible), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Mydaea tarsalis Stein, 1918: 220
= Helina tarsalis Stein of Pont, 1972 (new combination)
Helina toga Snyder, 1949: 158 - Michigan
Helina troene (Walker, 1849: 936) - British Columbia to Newfoundland, s. to Calif.andGa. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia lysinoe Walker, 1849: 938
= Anthomyia troene Walker, 1849: 936
= Spilogaster amoeba Stein, 1898: 190
= Spilogaster pubiceps Stein, 1898: 194
Helina ute Snyder, 1949: 155 - California
Helina villihumilis Snyder, 1949: 156 - British Columbia

References
Bigot, J.M.F. 1885. Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus. 25 partie, XXXIII: Anthomyzides nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (1884) (6) 4: 263-304.
Brullé, A.M. 1833. IVe Classe. Insectes [part]. Pp. 289-336. In Bory de Saint-Vincent (ed.), Expedition scientifique de Moree. Section des sciences physiques 3 (1) (Zool. 2), 400 pp. Paris.
Cole, F.R. & Lovett, A.L. 1919. New Oregon Diptera.Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 9: 221-255.
de Carvalho, C.J.B., Couri, M.S., Pont, A.C., Pamplona, D. & Lopes, S.M. 2005. A catalogue of the Muscidae (Diptera) of the Neotropical Region. Zootaxa 860, 282 pp.
Giglio-Tos, E. 1893. Diagnosi di nuovi generi e di nuove specie di Ditteri. VIII. Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 8 (147), 11 pp.
Malloch, J.R. 1918. Notes and descriptions of some anthomyiid genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society Washington 31: 65-68.
Malloch, J.R. 1919. A new anthomyiid from Labrador (Diptera). The Canadian Entomologist 51: 277-278.
Malloch, J.R. 1920. Descriptions of new North American Anthomyiidae (Diptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 46: 133-196, 3 pls.
Malloch, J.R. 1921. A synopsis of the North American species of the genus Helina R.-D., sens. lat. (Diptera, Anthomyiidae). The Canadian Entomologist 53: 103-109.
Malloch, J.R. 1922. Two new species of the genus Helina R.-D. (Diptera, Anthomyiidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 17: 95-96.
Meigen, J.W. 1826. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäische n zweiflugeligen Insekten. Funfter Theil. Schulz-Wundermann, Hamm. xii + 412 pp.
Pont, A.C. (1972) Family Muscidae. In: A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, 97, 111 pp.
Pont, A.C. 2013. The Fanniidae and Muscidae (Diptera) described by Paul Stein (1852-1921). Zoosystematics and Evolution 89(1): 31-166.
Preyssler, J.D.E. 1791. Beschreibungen und Abbildungen derjenigen Insekten, welche in Sammlungen nicht aufzubewahren sind, dann aller, die noch ganz neu, und solcher, von denen wir noch keine oder doch sehr schlechte Abbildung besitzen. Mayer, Samml. Naturh. Physikal. Aufsatze, Dresden 1: 55-151, 3 pls.
Rondani, C. 1866. Anthomyinae Italicae collectae distinctae et in ordinem dispositae. Dipterorum Stirps XVII. Anthomyinae Rndn. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 9: 68-217.
Santos Abreu, E. 1976. Monografia de los Anthomyidos de las Islas Canarias (Dipteros). Servicio del Aula de Cultura Elias Santos Abreu. 175 pp., 24 col. figs.
Schnabl, J. 1887. Contributions a la faune dipterologique. Genre Aricia. Trudy Russk. Ent. Obshch. (1885-1887) 20: 271-440, 21 pls.
Séguy, E. 1923. Diptères Anthomyides. Faune Fr., 6: ix + 393 pp.
Snyder, F.M. 1941. Contribution to a revision of Neotropical Mydaeini (Diptera: Muscidae). American Museum Novitates 1134, 22 pp.
Snyder, F.M. 1949a. Review of Nearctic Mydaea, sensu stricto, and Xenomydaea (Diptera, Muscidae). American Museum Novitates 1401, 38 pp.
Snyder, F.M. 1949b. Nearctic Helina Robineau-Devoidy (Diptera, Muscidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 94: 111-160.
Snyder, F.M. 1949c. Notes and descriptions of some Phaoniinae (Diptera, Muscidae). American Museum Novitates 1402: 1-25.
Stein, P. 1898. Nordamerikanische Anthomyiden. Beitrag zur Dipteren-fauna der Vereinigten Staaten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift (1897) 42: 161-288.
Stein, P. 1918. Zur weitern Kenntnis aussereuropaeischer Anthomyiden. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 16: 147-244.
Stein, P. 1920. Nordamerikanische Anthomyiden. 2. Beitrag. Archiv für Naturgeschichte Abt. A 84 (9)[1918]: 1-106.
Walker, F. 1849. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part IV. British Museum (Natural History), London. Pp. [3] + 689-1172 + [2]
Walker, F. 1853. Insecta Britannica, Diptera. Volume 2. Reeve & Benham, London. vi + 298 pp., pls. 11-20.
Walker, F. 1861. Catalogue of the dipterous insects collected in Batchian, Kaisaa and Makian, and at Tidon in Celebes, by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with descriptions of new species. Journal and Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of London, Zoology 5: 270-303.
Wang, M. F., Xue, W. Q., & Zhang, D. 2004. NOTES ON ANNOSA SPECIES‐GROUP OF HELINA R.‐D.(DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE) IN CHINA. Insect Science, 11(4), 293-301.
Wiedemann, C.R.W. 1817. Neue Zweiflügler (Diptera Linn.) aus der Gegend um Kiel. Zoologisches Magazin 1(1): 61-86.
Wulp, F.M. van der 1896. Fam. Muscidae [part]. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. Diptera 2: 321-344
Zetterstedt, J.W. 1838. Dipterologis Scandinaviae. Sect. 3: Diptera, pp. 477-868. In his Insecta Lapponica. vi + 1,140 (pp.) Lipsiae [= Leipzig].
Zetterstedt, J.W. 1845. Diptera Scandinaviae disposita et descripta. Tomus quartus. Officina Lundbergiana, Lundae [= Lund.]. Pp. 1281-1738.
Zetterstedt, J.W. 1860. Diptera Scandinaviae disposita et descipta. Tomus decimus qvartus seu ultimus, continens addenda, corrigenda & emendata tomis prioribus, atque generico omnium tomorum. Officina Lundbergiana, Lundae [= Lund.]. Pp. i-iv + 6191-6609.

Ingresado el 22 de junio de 2022 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

20 de junio de 2022

Systema Dipterorum's Checklist of Phaonia and Dolichophaonia (?) (Diptera: Muscidae) north of Mexico

The "Phaoniini" of muscid flies in North America include some of the most diverse genera of the family in our area. Unfortunately, they are also very poorly known, often confused in nomenclature, and difficult to recognize from photographs. No checklist of the genus Phaonia north of Mexico has been made since Stone et al.'s catalogue, and Dolichophaonia was described in 1993, after which some Phaonia species in our area were almost silently transferred to. I have here compiled a list of species occuring in this area according to Systema Dipterorum, which keeps tabs on these taxa watchfully, including works published this year. It's one of the only options of sources we have to help make accessible checklists like these. Carvalho et al. made a catalogue of Muscidae of the Neotropical region in 2005. Next I will try to do this for Helina, which I also have specimens of, and might be an even more heterogenous genus than Phaonia.

Synopsis of Genera:
Genus Phaonia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 482 (79 species)
In my trip to Massachusetts, I caught some flies and one of them keyed to Phaonia apicata (ssp. apicata? No nominal subspecies has been proposed) in Malloch (1923). That alone doesn't mean it is apicata; species not included in that key also should be accounted for, hence why I made this updated checklist, as notes for myself, but I would also like to share this with other people (I'm just not sure if I should be sharing this information like crazy, mostly due to copyright and stuff).
One of the defining characters for the genus Phaonia is the presence of hind tibia bare of setae except for a single well developed posterodorsal seta on the apical fourth or so. Other genera may also have this character, though, such as Hydrotaea (can we come to a consensus on the Hydrotaea-Ophyra issue please?!?!), Lophosceles, Muscina, and more. Helina almost always have a different configuration of the hind tibial chaetotaxy as Phaonia, with either more than 1 seta on the posterodorsal surface or with a single seta reduced in size or displaced. Arguably what's actually probably the more unique character of Phaonia is that many, maybe even most Phaonia also have 3 post-sutural dorsocentral setae, an exception among Muscidae, which usually have 4. Generally only Coenosiini and maybe some Helina have this character state. This can make them more difficult to separate from Anthomyiidae, however. In these cases, acrostichals also tend to be entirely lacking except for a prescutellar pair, which almost never occurs in Anthomyiidae. Most anthomyiids also have more than one posterodorsal seta on the hind tibiae. The crossveins on the wings may also be clouded with dark in Phaonia. The eyes can also be hairy.
Several additions to the fauna have been made since the keys from Malloch (1923) and Huckett (1965), and few synonymies. Ringdahl (1933) described P. bidentata. Hall (1937) described P. pudoa. Huckett (1965) of course described a few species. After Stone et al.'s catalogue, Huckett (1966) described several species from western North America. Huckett (1973) described P. cauta from Maine. Dialyta rufitibia, used in Huckett (1965), was synonymized with Phaonia flavitibia, and is consequently now Phaonia flavitibia. Phaonia morio Zetterstedt, used in Huckett (1965), was synonymized with P. lugubris. P. pruinosa became a junior primary homonym of Polietina concinna.
Not as straightforwardly, Phaonia pratensis has a markedly confused history of nomenclature. Most of it was summarized by Collin (1951) and Pont (1984). I haven't found it or its synonyms at all in Malloch (1923), Stone et al. (1965), or Huckett (1965), but it's listed to occur here by Systema Dipterorum. It turns out this species had been referred to as over 4 different species-group names. Collin (1951) described P. laetabilis, an additional species found among an assemblage also containing P. laeta Fallén in the UK. Later on, the valid name of P. laetabilis became P. trigonalis and that of P. laeta Fallén became P. pratensis. The lectotype of P. laeta turned out to be P. trigonalis itself though, and so Pont (1984), whom also explains all this, synonymized P. laetabilis with P. laeta. This should also imply that all of these names are just P. pratensis, since P. laeta is already a synonym of P. pratensis, but this was not made too clear. Systema Dipterorum lists both P. laeta and P. pratensis as valid names, but the ranges are printed exactly the same, suggesting that they meant for the two species to be the same. Therefore, I treat them all as P. pratensis here. I won't get into the other species-group names, but they are also synonyms. Collin (1951) denotes its morphology.

Genus Dolichophaonia Carvalho, 1993: 19 (2 species)
de Carvalho (1993) described the genus Dolichophaonia in their publication written in Portuguese. All the species assigned to the genus at the time were Neotropical, none occuring north of Mexico (yet?). Later on, our Phaonia texensis was provisionally transferred to the genus. Vockeroth (1996) shortly in his key to genera synonymized Dolichophaonia with Phaonia, suggesting there are no ways to separate females of that genus from Phaonia. This interpretation is reflected in the Muscidae portion in the Manual of Central America, written by Savage and Vockeroth (2015), which still considered Dolichophaonia a part of Phaonia. Couri & de Carvalho rejected this synonymy in 2002 during their key and taxonomic work of the Muscidae of the Neotropical region (that's also extremely difficult to access; I do not have it). It remains controversial if Dolichophaonia should remain a distinct genus. Systema Dipterorum considers it so. Fortunately, Malloch (1923) includes our Dolichophaonia species as Phaonia species and they are quite easily separated. Those species form a group in the key, suggesting a distinct relationship. At this time, only Dolichophaonia texensis appears to have been collected north of Mexico. Eventually, D. limbinervis will probably be found here. Systema Dipterorum broadly lists North America as part of its range anyway.

Checklist:
Genus Phaonia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 482 (79 species)
Phaonia aberrans Malloch, 1919: 208 - New Jersey, Tennessee,North Carolina References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia albocalyptrata Malloch, 1920: 267 - s.Alaska References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
Phaonia alpicola (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1401) - Alaska, Nunavut, Manitoba, Quebec,Europe,Palaearctic References: Huckett (1965)
= Aricia alpicola Boheman, 1844: 104 (nomen nudum)
= Aricia alpicola Zetterstedt, 1845: 1401
Phaonia alticola Malloch, 1923: 260 - Alaska, Nunavut,Yukon Territory References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia antennalis Huckett, 1966: 296 - California
Phaonia apicalis Stein, 1914: 46 - Alaska,Michigan,n.Europe References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia apicata Johannsen, 1916: 396 - Alberta, Iowa, Wisconsin,Michigan, Quebec, Labrador toGa. References: Malloch (1923)
+ssp. solitaria Stein, 1920: 15 - Wisconsin, New York
Phaonia atlanis Malloch, 1923: 279 - Quebec, Mich.to New York, s. to Miss.andFla.
Phaonia atrocitrea Malloch, 1923: 262 - Yukon Territory,Quebec References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia atrocyanea Ringdahl, 1916: 234 - Alaska, Yukon Territory,Nunavut, Quebec, Labrador,Sweden References: Malloch (1923) (as citreibasis), Huckett (1965)
= Phaonia citreibasis Malloch, 1920: 268
Phaonia aurea Malloch, 1923: 256 - Washington
Phaonia azygos Malloch, 1923: 261 - New York
Phaonia basiseta Malloch, 1920: 133 - Alberta to Nunavut,s.to Alberta, South Dakota and Minnesota, e.Asia References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
Phaonia bidentata Ringdahl, 1933: 17 - Nunavut, Quebec,Labrador References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia brevispina Malloch, 1923: 269 - Washington, to California,Idaho, Illinois to New Hampshire andVa.
Phaonia bysia (Walker, 1849: 936) - Alaska to Oreg., Alberta andIdaho, Michigan to Quebec, s. toGa. References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyia bysia Walker, 1849: 936
= Phaonia pallicornis Stein, 1920: 12
Phaonia caerulescens (Stein, 1898: 187) - Washington to Alberta, s.to California andUtah References: Malloch (1923)
= Aricia caerulescens Stein, 1898: 187
Phaonia californiensis (Malloch, 1923: 236) - California,Arizona
= Bigotomyia californiensis Malloch, 1923: 236
Phaonia cauta Huckett, 1973: 232 - Maine
Phaonia consobrina (Zetterstedt, 1838: 665) - Alaska to Greenland, s. to Quebec, Europe, n. Russia References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyza consobrina Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza consobrina Zetterstedt, 1838: 665
= Anthomyza vicina Zetterstedt, 1838: 673
= Aricia marmorata Zetterstedt, 1860: 6197
= Anthomyia serva Meigen of Lundbeck, 1898: 309
Phaonia coriatlanis Huckett, 1966: 297 - California
Phaonia curvinervis Malloch, 1923: 275 - N.S.
Phaonia curvipes (Stein, 1920: 19) - Michigan to Quebec, s.toN.C. References: Huckett (1965)
= Trichopticus curvipes Stein, 1920: 19
Phaonia deleta (Stein, 1898: 178) - Nunavut,California, Texas, Iowa to Quebec, s. toPa. References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
= Aricia deleta Stein, 1898: 178
Phaonia diruta (Stein, 1898: 188) - South Dakota,Kansas,Michigan to Connecticut, s. toGa. References: Malloch (1923)
= Spilogaster diruta Stein, 1898: 188
Phaonia dissimilis Malloch, 1923: 263 - Alaska References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia errans (Meigen, 1826: 112) - Alaska to Newfoundland, s. toCalif. and New Jersey,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
= Musca erratica Fallén, 1825: 77
= Anthomyia errans Meigen, 1826: 112
= Trennia nigricornis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 484
= Anthomyza zetterstedt Bonsdorff, 1866: 273
= Yetodesia tinctipennis Rondani, 1866: 104
= Yetodesia manicata Rondani, 1871: 322
= Aricia girschneri Schnabl, 1888: 401
= Phaonia biseta Ringdahl, 1935: 31
+ssp. completa Malloch, 1923: 258 - New Hampshire
= Phaonia errans var. completa Malloch, 1923: 258
+ssp. luteva Walker, 1849: 934 - Nova Scotia
= Hyetodesia varipes Coquillett, 1900: 441
Phaonia fausta Huckett, 1965: 313 - Nunavut
Phaonia flava Stein, 1920: 6 - British Columbia, Oregon,California References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia flavibasis Malloch, 1919: 208 - New York,New Hampshire References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia flavitibia (Johannsen, 1916: 394) - Wisconsin to Quebec,s. toN.C. References: Huckett (1965) (as Dialyta)
=Dialyta flavitibia Johannsen, 1916: 394
=Dialyta rufitibia Stein, 1920: 23
Phaonia fraterna Malloch, 1923: 251 - New Hampshire
Phaonia fuscana Huckett, 1965: 906 - Washington, Oregon, Wisconsin to Quebec, s. to Tex.andGa.
= Spilogaster fusca Stein, 1898: 189
Phaonia fuscicauda Malloch, 1918: 269 - Washington,Oregon References: Malloch (1923)
= Phaonia fuscinervis Stein, 1920: 7
Phaonia harti Malloch, 1923: 266 - Alberta,Idaho, Arizona, Kans.to Michigan and Massachusetts, s. toVa.
Phaonia houghii (Stein, 1898: 177) - British Columbia toQue., s. to California,Oklahoma, andN.J. References: Malloch (1923)
= Aricia houghii Stein, 1898: 177
= Phaonia inculta Stein, 1920: 8
Phaonia hybrida (Schnabl, 1888: 396) - Alaska, Yukon Territory,Nunavut,Palaearctic References: Huckett (1965)
= Aricia hybrida Schnabl, 1888: 396
Phaonia imitatrix Malloch, 1919: 61c - USA (Alaska); Canada(Yukon) References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia inenarrabilis Huckett, 1965: 314 - Nunavut,Alberta
Phaonia laticornis Malloch, 1923: 279 - Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, New Hampshire toN.C.
Phaonia lugubris (Meigen, 1826: 87) - Alaska, Yukon Territory, Nunavut, Greenland, cent. and n. Europe, e.Asia References: Huckett (1965) (as morio)
= Anthomyia lugubris Meigen, 1826: 87
= Aricia morio Boheman, 1844: 103 (nomen nudum)
= Aricia morio Zetterstedt, 1845: 1399
= Aricia plumbea Zetterstedt of Lundbeck, 1898: 308
Phaonia magnicornis (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1666) - Alaska, Yukon Territory,Palaearctic References: Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyza magnicornis Zetterstedt, 1845: 1666
= Aricia medisecta Pandellé, 1899: 102
Phaonia marylandica Malloch, 1923: 265 - Maine
Phaonia monticola Malloch, 1918: 266 - Alaska to Newfoundland, s. to Arizona andColo. References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
= Aricia morio Zetterstedt of Stein, 1920: 17
Phaonia neglecta Huckett, 1966: 299 - Alberta,Washington, Oregon,Colorado
Phaonia nigricans Johannsen, 1916: 395 - Alberta to South Dakota,Utah, Wisconsin to Quebec and Newfoundland, s. toD.C. References: Malloch (1923)
= Phaonia nigricans Johannsen, 1916: 395
= Spilogaster cayugae Johannsen, 1917: 327
= Phaonia nervosa Stein, 1920: 12
Phaonia nigricauda Malloch, 1918: 268 - California References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia pallidisquama (Zetterstedt, 1849: 3288) - Nunavut (Baffin I.), Greenland, Quebec, n.w.Europe References: Huckett (1965)
= Aricia pallidisquama Zetterstedt, 1849: 3288
= Aricia anthracina Zetterstedt, 1860: 6227
Phaonia pallidosa Huckett, 1965: 907 - British Columbia and Idaho toCalif.
= Dialyta pallida Stein, 1920: 22
Phaonia pallidula Coquillett, 1902: 122 - Tex.to s. Ga.toMass References: Malloch (1923)
= Phaonia dulcis Stein, 1920: 5
Phaonia parviceps Malloch, 1918: 267 - Oregon References: Malloch (1923)
= Phaonia caesia Stein, 1920: 4
Phaonia peregrinans Huckett, 1965: 314 - Alaska
Phaonia perfida Stein, 1920: 13 - California,Utah References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia picealis Huckett, 1965: 315 - Alaska
Phaonia pratensis (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 485) - Michigan, Ontario, New Hampshire, Ohio,Europe References: Collin (1951), Pont (1984)
= Musca laeta (Fallén, 1823: 56) (tentative placement)
= Anthomyia trigonalis Meigen, 1826: 127
= Mydaea nigripes Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 481
= Euphemia pratensis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 485
= Euphemia tibialis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 486
= Anthomyia betuleti Bouché, 1834: 78
= Aricia brevivillosa Macquart, 1835: 292
= Aricia nigripes Schnabl, 1888: 454
= Aricia maculipennis Strøm, 1896: 238
= Phaonia laetabilis Collin, 1951: 2
Phaonia prisca Stein, 1920: 14 - New York References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia protuberans Malloch, 1923: 247 - Washington to Colorado,Alberta to Labrador, s.toN.Y. References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia proxima (Wulp, 1869: 85) - Alaska, Yukon Territory,Washington,Michigan References: Huckett (1965)
= Aricia proxima Wulp, 1869: 85
Phaonia pudoa Hall, 1937: 215 - Washington,Montana
Phaonia pulvillata (Stein, 1904: 422) - North America References: Malloch (1923)
= Aricia pulvillataStein, 1904: 422
Phaonia quieta Stein, 1920: 14 - Oregon,California,Utah,Michigan References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia reclusa Huckett, 1966: 300 - California
Phaonia reflecta Huckett, 1966: 301 - California
Phaonia reversa Huckett, 1966: 303 - California
Phaonia rufibasis Malloch, 1919: 207 - Alberta, Utah, Que.toMd References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia rugia (Walker, 1849: 923) - Alaska to Labr., s. to Utah, Colo.andN.H. References: Malloch (1923) (as incerta), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyia rugia Walker, 1849: 923
= Aricia brunneinervis Stein, 1898: 183
= Phaonia incerta Malloch, 1923: 250
Phaonia savonoskii Malloch, 1923: 248 - Nunavut,Washington,Alberta,Manitoba References: Huckett (1965)
Phaonia serva (Meigen, 1826: 86) - N.W.T.to Newfoundland, s. to Wyo. and Georgia,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyia serva Meigen, 1826: 86
= Fellaea agilis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 478
= Fellaea erratica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 478
= Anthomyia interlatens Walker, 1853: 120
Phaonia sobriana Huckett, 1966: 304 - California
Phaonia soccata (Walker, 1849: 941) - Alberta, Ontario to MainetoN.Y. References: Malloch (1923), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyia soccata Walker, 1849: 941
Phaonia striata (Stein, 1898: 179) - Washington,California References: Malloch (1923)
= Aricia striata Stein, 1898: 179
Phaonia subfusca Malloch, 1923: 273 - Arkansas, Ohio,New York
Phaonia subfuscinervis (Zetterstedt, 1838: 673) - Alaska to Greenland, s. to Manitoba and Quebec, New Hampshire,n.w.Europe References: Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyza inconspicua Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza subfuscinervis Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza turpis Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza vicina Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza inconspicua Zetterstedt, 1838: 673
= Anthomyza subfuscinervis Zetterstedt, 1838: 673
= Anthomyza turpis Zetterstedt, 1838: 673
Phaonia tenebriona Huckett, 1965: 315 - Yukon
Phaonia tipulivora Malloch, 1923: 252 - New York,New Hampshire, Maine,Massachusetts,Connecticut
Phaonia trivialis Malloch, 1923: 278 - Alberta
Phaonia uniseriata Malloch, 1923: 268 - Washington
Phaonia versicolor Stein, 1920: 16 - Colorado References: Malloch (1923)
Phaonia winnemanae Malloch, 1919: 3 - Wisconsin,Michigan, New York,Massachusetts, Maine,New Hampshire References: Malloch (1923)
= Phaonia apta Stein, 1920: 4

Genus Dolichophaonia Carvalho, 1993: 19 (2 species)
Dolichophaonia texensis (Malloch, 1923) - California, Arizona,Florida,Mexico
+ssp. flavofemorata Malloch - Texas, Florida
Dolichophaonia limbinervis (Stein, 1918: 208) - Mexico; North America References: Malloch (1923)

References:
de Carvalho, C. J. B. DOLICHOPHAONIA, GEN. N.(DIPTERA, MUSCIDAE, PHAONIINAE) DESCRIÇOES, NOVAS COMBINAÇOES, SINONIMIAS. Revista Brasiliera de Entomologia 37(1): 19-34.
de Carvalho, C.J.B. & Couri, M.S. 2002. Part I. Basal groups, pp. 17-132. In: Carvalho, C.J.B. de (ed.), Muscidae (Diptera) of the Neotropical Region: taxonomy. Iniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba. 293 pp.
de Carvalho, C.J.B., Couri, M.S., Pont, A.C., Pamplona, D. & Lopes, S.M. 2005. A catalogue of the Muscidae (Diptera) of the Neotropical Region. Zootaxa 860, 282 pp.
Collin, J.E. 1951. Phaonia laetabilis sp.n. with notes on some other related Anthomyiidae (Diptera). Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 63(2): 1-5.
Couri, M.S. & de Carvalho, C.J.B. 2002. Part II. Apical groups, pp. 133-260. In: Carvalho, C.J.B. de (ed.), Muscidae (Diptera) of the Neotropical Region: taxonomy. Iniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba. 293 pp.
Falk, S.J, and Pont, A.C. 2017. A Provisional Assessment of the Status of Calypterate flies in the UK. Natural England. Commissioned Reports, Number 234.
Fallen, C.F. 1820-1825. Monographia Muscidum Sveciae.
Hall, D.G. 1937. New muscoid flies (Diptera) in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 84[3011]: 201-216.
Huckett, H.C. 1965. The Muscidae of Northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland (Diptera). Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 42, 369 pp.
Huckett, H.C. 1966. New species of Anthomyiidae and Muscidae from California (Diptera).Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 34: 235-305.
Huckett, H.C. 1973. The Anthomyiidae and Muscidae of Mt. Katahdin, Maine (Diptera). J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 80[1972]: 216-233.
Malloch, J.R. 1918. Diptera from the southwestern United States. Paper IV. Anthomyiidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 44: 263-319, 1 pl.
Malloch, J.R. 1919. One new genus and two new species of Anthomyiidae from the vicinity of Washington, D. C. (Diptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 32: 1-14.
Malloch, J.R. 1919. Some new eastern Anthomyiidae (Diptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 32: 207-210.
Malloch, J.R. 1919. The Diptera collected by the Canadian Expedition, 1913-1918 (Excluding the Tipulidae and Culicidae). Pp. 34c-90c. In: Anderson, R. M. (ed.), Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-1918. Vol. 3: Insecta. 90 pp., 10 pls.
Malloch, J.R. 1920. Descriptions of new North American Anthomyiidae (Diptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 46: 133-196, 3 pls.
Malloch, J.R. 1923. Flies of the anthomyiid genus Phaonia and related genera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 48[1922]: 227-282.
Meigen, J.W. 1826. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäische n zweiflugeligen Insekten. Funfter Theil. Schulz-Wundermann, Hamm. xii + 412 pp.
Pont, A.C. 1984. A revision of the Fanniidae and Muscidae (Diptera) described by Fallen. Entomologica Scandinavica 15: 277-297.
Stein, P. 1898. Nordamerikanische Anthomyiden. Beitrag zur Dipteren-fauna der Vereinigten Staaten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift (1897) 42: 161-288.
Stein, P. 1914. Versuch, die Gattungen und Arten unserer Anthomyiden nur nach dem weiblichen Geschlecht zu bestimmen, nebst Beschreibung einiger neuen Arten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (Abt. A) 79 (8)[1913]: 4-55.
Stein, P. 1920. Nordamerikanische Anthomyiden. 2. Beitrag. Archiv für Naturgeschichte Abt. A 84 (9)[1918]: 1-106.
Vockeroth, J.R. 1996. Key to the genera of Muscidae (Diptera) of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 18: 280–288.
Walker, F. 1849. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part IV. British Museum (Natural History), London. Pp. [3] + 689-1172 + [2].
Zetterstedt, J.W. 1838. Dipterologis Scandinaviae. Sect. 3: Diptera, pp. 477-868. In his Insecta Lapponica. vi + 1,140 (pp.) Lipsiae [= Leipzig].
Zetterstedt, J.W. 1845. Diptera Scandinaviae disposita et descripta. Tomus quartus. Officina Lundbergiana, Lundae [= Lund.]. Pp. 1281-1738.

Ingresado el 20 de junio de 2022 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

14 de junio de 2022

Systema Dipterorum's Checklist of Limnophora (Diptera: Muscidae) north of Mexico

The species of Limnophora and related genera are poorly known and a nomenclatural mess. The Systema Dipterorum probably serves as the only modern or recent taxonomic authority for such genera, at least for the Nearctic region. The work in Stone et al. (1965) hardly differs from this catalogue except for the addition of the species L. invada from California described by Huckett in 1966.

Checklist (10 species):
Limnophora discreta Stein, 1898: 204 - Alaska to California and New Mexico, British Columbia to Newfoundland, s. to Ill.andFla.
Limnophora narona (Walker, 1849: 945) - Washington to Alberta & Quebec, s. to Chile & Argentina; Bermuda, West Indies
= Anthomyia narona Walker, 1849: 945
= Anthomyia prominula Thomson, 1869: 550
= Homalomyia dentata Bigot, 1885: 284
= Limnophora cyrtoneurina Stein, 1898: 203
= Limnophora indecisa Stein, 1901: 198 (unavailable)
= Limnophora transmutans Stein, 1901: 214 (unavailable)
Limnophora incrassata Malloch, 1919: 299 - Alaska,Washington, Montana, Oregon, Wyo.,Colorado
Limnophora invada Huckett, 1966: 285 - California
Limnophora femorata (Malloch, 1913: 603) - Arizona, New Mexico, BajaCalif.
= Tetramerinx femorata Malloch, 1913: 603
Limnophora nigripes (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) - Alaska to Greenland, s. to California,Quebec, and Newfoundland, also S.Dak.
= Limosia nigripes Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 541
Limnophora groenlandica Malloch, 1920: 147 - West Greenland
Limnophora rotundata (Collin, 1930: 256) - w Greenland
= Pseudolimnophora rotundata Collin, 1930: 256
Limnophora sinuata Collin, 1930: 256 - Newfoundland, Greenland, Iceland,Favoes,Norway
= Limnophora islandica Lyneborg, 1965: 215
Limnophora uniseta Stein, 1916: 94 - Alaska to Greenland,also British Columbia, Washington, n.Europe
= Limnophora quadripunctata Curtis, 1837: 264 (nomen nudum)
= Limnophora coenosiaeformis Schnabl, 1889: 336 (nomen nudum)
= Limnophora nilotica Schnabl, 1889: 335 (nomen nudum)
= Limnophora parallelinervis Schnabl, 1889: 335 (nomen nudum)
= Limnophora lunulata Santos Abreu, 1976: 97
= Limnophora tenuiornata Santos Abreu, 1976: 91

Reference
Bigot, J.M.F. 1885. Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus. 25 partie, XXXIII: Anthomyzides nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (1884) (6) 4: 263-304.
Collin, J.E. 1930. A revision of the Greenland species of the anthomyid genus Limnophora sens. lat. (Diptera), with figures of the male genitalia of these and many other Palaearctic species. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 78: 255-281, 13 pls.
Curtis, J. 1837. A guide to an arrangement of British Insects: being a catalogue of all the named species hitherto discovered in Great Britain and Ireland. Second Edition, Greatly enlarged. J. Pigot, Sherwood and Co. & Marshall, London. vi pp. + 294 columns.
Huckett, H.C. 1932. The North American species of the genus Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy, with descriptions of new species (Muscidae, Diptera). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 40: 25-76, 105-158, 279-338, 7 pls.
Huckett, H.C. 1966. New species of Anthomyiidae and Muscidae from California (Diptera).Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 34: 235-305.
Lyneborg, L. 1965. On Muscidae and Anthomyiidae (Diptera) from Iceland. With the description of two new species. Opuscula Entomologica 30: 211-226.
Malloch, J.R. 1913. Three new species of Anthomyiidae (Diptera) in the United States National Museum collection. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 45[2004]: 603-607.
Malloch, J.R. 1919. New species of flies (Diptera) from California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 9: 297-312.
Malloch, J.R. 1920. Descriptions of new North American Anthomyiidae (Diptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 46: 133-196, 3 pls.
Santos Abreu, E. 1976. Monografia de los Anthomyidos de las Islas Canarias (Dipteros). Servicio del Aula de Cultura Elias Santos Abreu. 175 pp., 24 col. figs.
Schnabl, J. 1889. Contributions a la faune dipterologique. Trudy Russk. Ent. Obshch. 23: 313-347.
Stein, P. 1898. Nordamerikanische Anthomyiden. Beitrag zur Dipteren-fauna der Vereinigten Staaten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift (1897) 42: 161-288.
Stein, P. 1901. Die Walker'schen aussereuropäische n Anthomyiden in der Sammlung des British Museum zu London. Zeitschrift für Systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 1: 185-221.
Stein, P. 1916. Die Anthomyiden Europas. Tabellen zur Bestimmung derGattungen und aller mir bekannten Arten, nebst mehr oder wenigerausfuhrlichen Beschreibungen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (1915) (A) 81(10): 1-224.
Stone, A., Sabrosky, C.W., Wirth, W.W., Foote, R.H. & Coulson, J.R. 1965. A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. Agric. Handbk 276, 1696 pp.
Thomson, C.G. 1869. Diptera. Species nova descripsit, pp. 443-614. In: Kongliga svenska fregatten Eugenies resa omkring jorden under befäl af C.A. Virgin, åren 1851-1853. 2 (Zoologi) 1, Insecta. "1868". P.A. Norstedt & Soner, Stockholm. 617 pp., pl. 9.
Walker, F. 1849. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part IV. British Museum (Natural History), London. Pp. [3] + 689-1172.

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29 de abril de 2022

Brief synopsis on some keys to Phoridae in the New World, possibly incl. key to genera of Phoridae North of Mexico in the future

The Manual of Nearctic Diptera's key to genera is outdated. Additionally, a whole addendum/corrigendum to the key published by Dr. Brian Brown was published in 1988 that went overlooked by online sources (no page for the reference exists on BugGuide, it seems, yet). I have added this and other important literature for the Nearctic fauna to the Phoridae family page on BugGuide. The key in Manual Central America includes most of the genera north of Mexico, except as follows (species if only one species occuring in our area) based on the world catalogue on Phorid.net (ranges based on Systema Dipterorum):

  • Aenigmatias
  • Beckerina
  • Chaetopleurophora (but that publication includes Chaetocnemistoptera, which was and is often treated as part of Chaetopleurophora)
  • Hirotophora multiseriata - Nebraska to Massachusetts, s. to New Mexico, Mississippi andV
  • Hypocera
  • Mallochphora orphnephiloides - Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee
  • Microselia texana - Arizona,Texas
  • Spiniphora
  • Stenophorina petiolata - Michigan, Tennessee
  • Trucidophora camponoti - Canada (Alberta to Ontario) s. to USA (California)
  • Veruanus boreotis - Michigan

The genera with multiple species in the region seen here is Aenigmatias, Beckerina, Hypocera, and Spiniphora.

  1. Anterior spiracle dorsal in position (Figs. 87, 88), enclosed by anterodorsal margin ofanepisternum which is continuous with curvature of dorsum of thorax. Abdominal segments flattened. Male winged (Fig. a1); female wingless, cockroach-like (Fig. 87). Anepisternum of
    male with a small posterodorsal subtriangular process that bears a bristle at its apex (Fig. 8S)
    . . . . . .AENIGMATIINAE . . . .Aenigmafras Meinert
    6 spp.; widespread in Canada and northern U.S.A.
    Anterior spiracle more lateral in position (Fig. 1), enclosed by anterodorsal margin of anepisternum but this not forming a continuous curvature with dorsum of thorax. Abdominal segments
    usually arched, not flattened. Both sexes generally winged, but wing sometimes reduced,
    rudimentary, or absent in female of some species. Anepisternum of male without a posterodorsal subtriangular process................................2

  2. Tibiae with distinct, though sometimes short or weak, bristles; mid tibia always with at least
    a closely situated dorsal pair on basal half (Figs. 66, 67); other tibiae sometimes with similar
    bristles. Wing fully developed in both sexes. Frons bristled along entire lateral margins;
    supra-antennal bristles, when present, reclinate (Fig. 2) ......PHORINAE....3
    Tibiae usually without bristles (Figs. 71, 73-75) (except in some Xanionotum Brues spp., which
    have a single anterodorsal bristle very near base on mid and hind tibiae) or wiih rows of
    strong setae (Fig.72). Wing generally fully developed, but sometimes reduced, rudimentary, or absent in female of some species. Frons sometimes bare along margins or on
    anteroventral half (Fig. 17); supra-antennal bristles variable
    METOPININAE. . . .20

  3. Rs forked, i.e' Rz+: and R++s present (Fig. aD; Ra15 rarely interrupted, except in some species
    of Chaetopleurophora Schmitz .....4
    Rs not forked, i.e. only R4+5 present (Fig. a6) . . . . .10

  4. Hind tibia with one or two dorsal longitudinal hair seams (Figs. 61,63) .........5
    Hind tibia without hair seams (Fig. 65) ......6

  5. Hind tibia with one hair seam (Fig. 61); hind femur of male with sensory organ consisting of
    one or more short stout setae at base of posterior (inner) surface (Fig. 62). Anepisternum
    setose above ......Dohrniphora
    Hind tibia with two hair seams (Fig. 63); hind femur of male without sensory organ. Anepisternum bare ....Diplonevra

  6. Anepisternum setose, with a long bristle . Chaetopleurophora
    Anepisternum bare.. ..........7

  7. Rs setose along most of its length (Fig. a3) .........8
    Rs bare or sparsely setose; if Rs setose, tibial bristles slender and weak ... ......9

  8. Proboscis greatly elongated, rigid (Fig. 4). Arista subapical. Scutellum with two strong posterior
    bristles and two much shorter coarse setae anteriorly. Tergite 6 short. Tibial bristlis weak.
    (Female only; male unknown) (New Brunswick) . . . ..Crinophleba

  9. Proboscis short, broad. Arista clearly dorsal (Fig. 35). Scutellum with four subequal bristles.
    Tergite 6 of female elongate. Tibial bristles strong (Fig. 65). Terminalia of male large, asymmetric, setose; epiproct short.. .....Anevrina

  10. Mid tibia, in addition to a proximal pair of bristles, with a stout anterior bristle some distance
    from its apex (Fig. 66); all tibial bristles strong. Posterior margin of tergite 8 of female
    emarginate (Figs. 76, 78) .. .. .spiniphora
    Mid tibia, apart from proximal pair of bristles, with, at most, a weak apical or subapical anterior
    bristle (Fig. 67); tibial bristles generally weak. Posterior margin of tergite 8 of female not
    emarginate (Fig.79) .....TriphleDaRondani
    23 spp.; widespread throughout North America
    First flagellomere of male globular basally, elongated dorsally into a slender arista-like process
    bearing long hairs (Figs. 5, 36). Hind tibia with two hair seams. (Male only; female unknown)
    . . . . . .AbaristoPhora Schmitz
    I sp., diversipennis Borgmeier; Idaho, Montana
    First flagellomere not as above; arista normal in both sexes. Hind tibia with or without one
    or more hair seams .......11
    Fore tibia without bristles on basal half; basal half or more of mid tibia with one to many dorsal
    bristles in addition to usual basal pair (Fig.l). Frons with median furrow (Fig. 2). Species
    black, except for viridinola Brues, which is partly greenish . . . . .Phora
    Fore tibia usually with one or more bristles on basal half; basal half of mid tibia without additional dorsal bristles distal to usual basal pair. Frons with or without median furrow. Species
    variable in color ....12
    Hind tibia with one or two hair seams . . . . . .13
    Hindtibiawithouthair seams ........15
    Hind tibia with one hair seam. C and Rq+s joining apically in a pterostigma-like swelling (Fig.
    44). Two weak supra-antennal bristles present (Fig. 6). Anepisternum bare. .
    . . HYPoceri'des
    Hind tibia with two hair seams. Junction of apex of C and R++s simple, without a pterostigmalikeswelling. Supra-antennalbristlesabsent(Fig.8). Anepisternumsetose .........14
    Ocelli widely separated; lateral ocelli situated close to eye margins; ocellar triangle separated
    from frons by an indented line forming three variably accentuated loops (Fig. 7). First
    flagellomere oval, pyriform, or conical (Fig. 37) ....Stichillus
    Ocelli situated normally near center of vertex; ocellar triangle not separated from frons by a
    looped line. First flagellomere globose (Fig. 8) . . . .Borophaga
    Anepisternum setose, often with a long bristle. Frons with or without a median furrow. . . . 16
    Anepisternum bare. Frons without a median furrow . ......77
    Anepisternum with a long stout bristle. Frons without a median furrow. Arista dorsal. Alular
    area of wing with numerous bristles (Fig. a5). Tarsomere I of fore tarsus of male simple;
    mid and hind tibiae of both sexes with ctenidia (Fig. 70) .Hypocera
    Anepisternum with fine setae only, without a long bristle. Frons with a median furrow (Fig.
    9). Arista apical, rarely subapical. Alular area of wing with one bristle. Tarsomere 1 of
    fore tarsus of male with a slender fringed process at apex (Fig. 69); mid and hind tibiae
    of both sexes without ctenidia . . ..Coniceromyia
    Hind tibia without a closely placed pair of basal bristles, at most with one or two solitary bristles
    on distal half. Proboscis of female thick and sclerotized (Fig. 12). First flagellomere of male
    subconical, pointed apically (Fig. 11); this flagellomere in female of known species
    globose Citrago
    Hind tibia with a closely placed pair of basal bristles. Proboscis of female normal. First
    flagellomere of male large, conical or retort-shaped (Fig. 10); this flagellomere in female
    globose, with pointed apex (Fig. 38) ... .Conicera Meigen....18
    Rs with a short bristle at base in both sexes (Fig. a6). Right surstylus of male terminalia with
    a somewhat medially directed, variably sized plate or peg-shaped process on inner margin
    (Fig. 101) . .Conicera (Hypocerina)
    Rs without abristle atbase. Male terminalianot as above. .......19

References:
Brown, B. V. 1988. Additions to the phorid chapter in the “MANUAL OF NEARCTIC DIPTERA, VOLUME 2” (Diptera: Phoridae). The Canadian Entomologist, 120(04), 307–322.

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16 de abril de 2022

Systema Dipterorum's Checklist of Chrysopilus (Diptera: Rhagionidae) north of Mexico

Chrysopilus andersoni Leonard, 1930: 131 - USA: Illinois, Indiana,Ohio
Chrysopilus angustifacies Hardy, 1949: 148 - USA: Arizona
Chrysopilus anthracina Bigot, 1887: 105 - USA: WA to CA
Chrysopilus arctiventris James, 1936: 343 - USA: Washington to Wyo., s. to California and New Mexico
Chrysopilus basilaris (Say, 1823: 36) - Michigan toN.H., s. to Texas and Florida,?Guatemala.
Chrysopilus beameri Hardy, 1949: 151 - USA: FL
Chrysopilus connexus Johnson, 1912: 108 - USA: FL
Chrysopilus davisi Johnson, 1912: 4 - USA: NC
Chrysopilus dilatus Cresson, 1919: 177 - USA: CA
Chrysopilus divisus Hardy, 1949: 152 - USA: AZ
Chrysopilus fasciatus (Say, 1823: 37) - New Hampshire to North Carolina
Chrysopilus flavibarbis Adams, 1904: 438 - British Columbia to Manitoba, s. to California and New Mexico, also Mass
/syn. Chrysopilus aldrichi James, 1936
/syn. Chrysopilus cameroni Curran, 1926: 170
Chrysopilus foedus Loew, 1861: 317 - USA: South Dakota to Indiana andKans.
Chrysopilus georgianus Hardy, 1949: 154 - USA: Georgia
Chrysopilus griffithi Johnson, 1897: 119 - USA: Florida
Chrysopilus humilis Loew, 1874: 379 - USA: California, New Mexico, Colorado,?Illinois
Chrysopilus infuscatus Leonard, 1930: 141 - USA: Indiana, Louisiana
Chrysopilus kincaidi Hardy, 1949: 156 - USA: WA
Chrysopilus longipalpis Hardy, 1949: 157 - British Columbia toCalif.
Chrysopilus modestus Loew, 1872: 58 - Nebr.to New York, s. to Texas andVa.
Chrysopilus nudus Cresson, 1919: 176 - USA: CA, WA
Chrysopilus occidentalis Kerr, 2010: 122 - British Columbia and Alberta, s. to n. California & Utah
/syn Chrysopilus lucifer Adams, 1904: 437
Chrysopilus pilosus Leonard, 1930: 152 - Colorado and Nebraska, e. to Ohio andMich.
Chrysopilus proximus (Walker, 1848: 214) - South Dakota to N.S., s. to Florida, ?California,?Nevada
Chrysopilus quadratus (Say, 1823: 35) - British Columbia to Newfoundland, s. to California andFla.
/syn Chrysopilus dispar Wulp, 1867: 143
/syn Chrysopilus flavidus Bigot, 1887: 104
Chrysopilus rotundipennis Loew, 1861: 317 - Massachusetts to Florida andAla.
Chrysopilus testaceipes Bigot, 1887: 105 - British Columbia and Alberta to s. California and New Mexico
/syn. Chrysopilus bellus Adams, 1904: 438
Chrysopilus thoracicus (Fabricius, 1805: 70) - Illinois to Ontario andN.C.
Chrysopilus tomentosus Bigot, 1887: 104 - Washington to s. California andColo.
Chrysopilus velutinus Loew, 1861: 316 - Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina,Florida
Chrysopilus xanthopus Hardy, 1949: 163 - Arizona, New Mexico,Texas

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14 de marzo de 2022

Key to some New World genera of Coenosiini and its close relatives

The body plan of Coenosia-like flies is actually convergently evolved, with some species in genera outside of Coenosiini having this body plan (predatory flies with a gray body with some small markings on the abdomen, legs with long setae, dichoptic in both sexes, etc). These are flies with the anepimeron bare (not Muscini, Stomoxyini, etc), body color not usually metallic, bare hind coxae, node of Rs and base of R4+5 bare above, vein M usually straight or only curved slightly forward, and at least one presutural dorsocentral bristle moderately strong, clearly distinguishable from surrounding setulae. This key was made to overcome accessibility issues, probably all New World genera of Coenosiini are covered here.

  1. Labella fleshy or reduced; prestomal teeth present or absent; first presutural dorsocentral bristle
    more than half as long as second, but if absent, then labella fleshy, prestomal teeth absent and male
    holoptic (aberrant Helina spp.); katepisternal bristles, if more than two in number, with lower or
    lower posterior one always closer to upper posterior one than to upper anterior one; lower proepimeral
    bristle curved dorsally; first postsutural supra-alar (prealar) present or absent; male frons varied in
    width. Hind tibia usually without posterodorsal bristles or with at most two bristles; if three or more are present, they are restricted to basal half of tibia and are much shorter than anterodorsal bristles; legs sometimes partly yellow. Hind tibia with calcar absent, at most with one to two short bristles on basal half (Non-Coenosiini)...........................................................................................................................................................2
    Labella reduced; prestomal teeth developed; first presutural dorsocentral bristle absent or weak
    and less than half as long as second and/or katepisternal bristles arranged in nearly equilateral
    or isosceles triangle, with lower bristle almost equidistant from the two upper bristles
    (rarely closer to anterior upper katepisternal bristle in Bithoracochaeta); lower proepimeral bristle
    usually curved ventrally or anteroventrally; first postsutural supra-alar (prealar) bristle
    absent; male frons at least one-fifth as wide as head................................................................................................6

  2. Katepimeron and prosternum setulose....................................................................................................Helina
    Katepimeron bare; prosternum bare or setulose.....................................................................................3

  3. Sternite 1 setulose; first postsutural supra-alar (prealar) bristle usually absent, but if
    visible, then less than half as long as second notopleural; hind tibia with anterodorsal apical bristle
    various..................................................................................................................................................................4
    Sternite 1 bare; first postsutural supra-alar bristle present or absent; hind tibia with anterodorsal
    apical bristle strong.............................................................................................................................................5

  4. Sternite 1 with few strong setae near posterior margin; frons of male narrow, frontal
    vitta obliterated on most of upper half of frons; hind tibia with anterodorsal apical bristle weak..Brontaea
    Sternite 1 with fine setulae on most of its surface; frons of male wide, frontal vitta
    distinct throughout; hind tibia with anterodorsal apical bristle strong..................................................Lispoides

  5. Arista pubescent, longest microtrichium no longer than basal diameter of arista; first postsutural
    supra-alar (prealar) bristle absent; legs entirely black...............................................................................Spilogona
    Either arista with longest microtrichium much longer than basal diameter of arista or first postsutural
    supra-alar (prealar) bristle present or legs partly to entirely yellow.......................................................Helina

  6. Dorsocentral bristles 2+4; arista short, only slightly longer than first flagellomere; Nearctic, Bahamas, South America................................................................................................................................................Tetramerinx
    Dorsocentral bristles 1-2+2-3; arista various.........................................................................................................7

  7. Profrons projected................................................................. ............................................................................Noelia
    Profrons not projected.................................................................................. ...............................................................8

  8. Parafacial with a few fine hairs on upper third. Arista with longest hairs almost twice as long as width of first flagellomere...........................................................................................................................................Pentacricia
    Parafacial bare. Arista with longest hairs at most as long as with of first flagellomere.................................9

  9. One strong presutural dorsocentral seta, sometimes preceded by a second short seta. .................................................................................................................... ........................................................................10
    Two strong presutural dorsocentral setae, more or less similar in length......................................................24

  10. Postsutural dorsocentral setae 2...........................................................................................................................11
    Postsutural dorsocentral setae 3...............................................................................................................................12

  11. Basal scutellar seta shorter the apical pair; frons longer than wide; hind tibia with long median setae on anterodorsal, anteroventral, posterodorsal and sometimes posteroventral surfaces.......Bithoracochaeta
    Basal scutellar seta as long as or longer than the apical pair; frons wider than long............Schoenomyzina

  12. Wing with anal lobe reduced............................................................................................................Cholomyioides
    Wing with anal lobe normal..........................................................................................................................................13

  13. Hind tibia with at least one anterodorsal supramedian seta in addition to the median seta...................14
    Hind tibia without any anterodorsal supramedian seta in addition to the median setae ............................18

  14. Hind tibia without any posterodorsal supramedian seta; frons wider than longer; mid tibia with anteroventral seta.....................................................................................................................................Schoenomyza
    Hind tibia with at least one posterodorsal supramedian seta; frons variable...............................................15

  15. Apical scutellar setae short...........................................................................................................................Pilispina
    Apical scutellar setae strong........................................................................................................................................16

  16. Arista bare; lower calypter may be twice as large as upper calypter..........................................Stomopogon
    Arista not as above...........................................................................................................................................................17

  17. Hind tibia with preapical setae on anterodorsal and dorsal surfaces ...................................................................................................................................................................Notoschoenomyza
    Hind tibia with preapical setae on anterodorsal, dorsal and posterodorsal surfaces..........Spathipheromyia

  18. Katepisternal seta 0:1; disc of katepisternum with numerous setulae and hairs; lower proepimeral seta directed upwards, male: prealar seta present...............................................................................Drepanocnemis
    Katepisternal setae 1:1:1; disc of katepisternum with few setulae or hairs; lower proepimeral seta directed downwards, male: prealar seta absent.......................................................................................................19

  19. Calypteres similar in length..................................................................................................................Schoenomyza
    Lower calypter about twice as long as upper calypter.........................................................................................20

  20. Arista with plumes only on basal two-thirds; hind tibia with one supramedian posterodorsal seta.....................................................................................................................................................................Plumispina
    Arista with plumes along its entire length or only on basal two-thirds but usually with only very short hairs; hind tibia only rarely with a supramedian posterodorsal setae.................................................................21

  21. Hind femur with 3 preapical setae, on anterodorsal, dorsal and posterodorsal to posterior surfaces...............................................................................................................................................................................22
    Hind femur with 2 preapical setae, on anterodorsal and posterodorsal surfaces.........................................23

  22. Antennal insertion well above mid-level of eye; one pair of postsutural intra-alar setae; lower calypter transverse......................................................................................................................................................Cordiluroides
    Antennal insertion at mid-level of eye; two pairs of postsutural
    intra-alar setae; lower calypter glossiform............................................................................Neodexiopsis, in part

  23. Gena greatly reduced, almost linear; female: ovipositor of medium length; tergites and sternites broad..................................................................................................................................................................Agenamyia
    Gena of moderate width; female: ovipositor long; tergites and sternites long and
    narrow.................................................................................................................................................Coenosia, in part

  24. Apical scutellar setae shorter than the basal setae.............................................................................Pilispina
    Apical scutellar setae as long as the basal setae....................................................................................................25

  25. Palpus rather enlarged apically; gena very deep; eyes reduced in size, with few setae around vibrissae.........................................................................................................................................................................Apsil
    Palpus slender; gena variable; eyes not or hardly reduced, with few or many setae
    around vibrissae..................................................................................................................................................................26

  26. Antennal flagellomere modified apically; hind tibia without setae on posterodorsal surface; fore tibia with mid posterior seta..................................................................................................................................Oxytonocera nigrohalterata
    Antennal flagellomere not modified apically............................................................................................................27

  27. Arista short and enlarged basally; katepisternum 2:2; claws and pulvilli small; male hypandrium not tubular; female ovipositor of moderate length with large tergites................................................Pachyceramyia
    Arista long and slender, or without the combination of above characters.......................................................28

  28. Fore tibia on posterior surface without setae; legs blackish; hind tibiae with 1 seta on posterodorsal surface; katepisternum 1:1:1 but may be with additional anterior seta.........................................................................................................................................Rhabdotoptera striatipennis
    Fore tibia usually with setae on posterior surface; not with the above combination of characters...........29

  29. ?????? Fore tibia on middle of posterior surface with, at least, one seta; katepisternal setae 1:1:1; arista long and slender; claws and pulvilli long; male: hypandrium tubular, very elongated; female: ovipositor long, with slender tergites; South America.................................................................................................Reynoldsia
    ???????............................................................................................................................................................................30

  30. Legs blackish; hind tibia with 2 anterodorsal setae...........................................................................................31
    Fore and mid tibiae, and often most of legs, yellow; hind tibia usually with one anterodorsal seta..........32

  31. Frontal vitta at level of anterior ocellus as wide in both sexes as distance between anterior pair of dorsocentral setae; ocellar triangle densely silvery pruinose in male and whitish pruinose in female, extending to anterior margin of frons.....................................................................................................Limnospila
    Frontal vitta at level of anterior ocellus narrower in both sexes than distance between anterior pair of dorsocentral setae; ocellar triangle not silvery nor whitish pruinose, and not extending to anterior margin offrons..........................................................................................................................................................Pseudocoenosia

  32. Katepisternum with 4 setae, 3 of which are located at posterior edge of sclerite.....................Macrorchis
    Katepisternum with 3 setae; postsutural dorsocentral setae 3; hind tibia without any anterodorsal supramedian seta in addition to the median setae; disc of katepisternum with few setulae or hairs; lower calypter about twice as long as upper calypter; lower proepimeral seta directed downwards, male: prealar seta absent; arista with plumes along its entire length or only on basal two-thirds but usually with only very short hairs; hind tibia only rarely with a supramedian posterodorsal setae................................................................................................................................33

  33. Hind femur with 3 preapical setae, on anterodorsal, dorsal and posterodorsal to posterior surfaces; antennal insertion at mid-level of eye; two pairs of postsutural intra-alar setae; lower calypter glossiform.......................................................................................................................................Neodexiopsis, in part
    Hind femur with 2 preapical setae, on anterodorsal and posterodorsal surfaces; postsutural dorsocentral setae 3; gena of moderate width; female: ovipositor long; tergites and sternites long and narrow.....................................................................................................................................................Coenosia, in part

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24 de diciembre de 2021

Checklist of Fucellia (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) north of Mexico

Fucellia aestuum Aldrich, 1918: 178: British Columbia, s. toOreg.
Fucellia albeola Huckett, 1927: 163: NY
Fucellia antennata Stein, 1910: 23: Alaska, s. to California& e. to Quebec), Russia (Far East)
Fucellia ariciiformis (Holmgren, 1872: 103): Alaska to Greenland, s. to Manitoba & Newfoundland
Fucellia assimilis Malloch, 1918: 317: California & BajaCalif.
Fucellia biseriata Huckett, 1966: 47: Alaska*
Fucellia costalis Stein, 1910: 21: California & BajaCalif.
Fucellia fucorum (Fallén, 1819: 5): Alaska, s. to California; Greenland
Fucellia hypopygialis Ringdahl, 1930: 7: Alaska?
Fucellia kamtchatica Ringdahl, 1930: 7: Alaska
Fucellia pictipennis Becker, 1907: 411: Alaska and east?
Fucellia pluralis Huckett, 1965: 24: Nunavut, Manitoba*
Fucellia rejecta Aldrich, 1918: 171: Oregon, s. to Baja California &Sonora
Fucellia rufitibia Stein, 1910: 25: British Columbia, s. to BajaCalif
Fucellia separata Stein, 1910: 24: British Columbia, s. to BajaCalif.
Fucellia tergina (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1690): Alaska, s. to Sonora; Illinois to Labrador, s. to Florida; Greenland; Bermuda (syn. Fucellia pacifica Malloch, Fucellia maritima ssp. pacifica Malloch, Fucellia intermedia Lundbeck)
Fucellia thinobia (Thomson, 1869: 563): Alaska & Oregon, California?, Russia (Far East)
Fucellia vibei Collin, 1951: 187: Nunavut

*Newly added species since Catalogue of Diptera North of Mexico (1965).

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25 de diciembre de 2020

Checklist of Botanophila north of Mexico

The genus Botanophila in the family Anthomyiidae has had a complicated history. Most of the generic concepts in that family have already been highly modified over time, but the genus Botanophila is among the most. Many of its species were formerly treated as several genera. There remains no revision of Nearctic species now treated under Botanophila since Michelson proposed the modern concept in an unpublished phylogeny and classificational overview of the family. With help from Systema Dipterorum, I've compiled a checklist of the Nearctic Botanophila along with references for each species.

Checklist (68 species):
Botanophila (Botanophila) hedleya (Huckett, 1947: 22): British Columbia &Alberta
Botanophila (Botanophila) inornata (Stein, 1898: 220): Alaska to Northwest Territories & Maine, s. to Alberta&Ga.
Botanophila (Botanophila) marginata (Stein, 1898: 221): Alaska, s. toCalif. &Colorado
Botanophila (Botanophila) marginella (Malloch, 1918: 311): Yukon Territory to Alberta, s. to California &New Mexico
Botanophila (Botanophila) piloseta (Malloch, 1918: 313): Oregon to Wyo., s. to California&Colorado
Botanophila (Botanophila) robusta (Stein, 1920: 76): Washington &Idaho
Botanophila (Botanophila) spinidens (Malloch, 1920: 194): Alaska to Northwest Territories, s. to Arizona & New Mexico)
Botanophila (Botanophila) spiniventris (Coquillett, 1900: 449): Alaska to Northwest Territories, s. toUtah & New Mexico
Botanophila (Botanophila) subspinata (Huckett, 1947: 10): Montana, s. to California &Utah
Botanophila (Botanophila) trifurcatoides (Huckett, 1947: 14): Washington to Alberta, s. to California&Utah
Botanophila (Hylemya) fibulans (Huckett, 1947: 20): Alberta, s. to Oregon &Wyo
Botanophila abitibiensis (Huckett, 1929b: 167): Yukon Territory toN.W.T., s. to British Columbia &Quebec
Botanophila aborta (Huckett, 1965: 79): Alaska &Yukon Territory
Botanophila acquiescens (Huckett, 1965: 79): Alaska to Labrador, s. toMan.
Botanophila acuticauda (Huckett, 1947: 17): British Columbia to Saskatchewan, s. to California & New Mexico
Botanophila adusta (Huckett, 1965: 80): Alaska toN.W.T.
Botanophila aklavika (Huckett, 1965: 81): Yukon Territory &Northwest Territories
Botanophila aliena (Malloch, 1920: 282): AlaskatoQue.
Botanophila alligata (Huckett, 1965: 81): Yukon Territory toLabr.
Botanophila anane (Walker, 1849: 927): Alberta to Quebec, s. to Wyo. &New York
Botanophila apiciseta (Ringdahl, 1933: 16): QC
Botanophila araeoglossa (Huckett, 1965: 82): YT
*Botanophila atra (Malloch, 1919a: 305): CA
*Botanophila atrovittata (Malloch, 1920: 280): Alaska
Botanophila betarum (Lintner, 1883: 208): Alaska to Northwest Territories (Baffin I.), s. to New Mexico& Pennsylvania Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
Botanophila bidens (Ringdahl, 1933: 14): Alaska and NWT Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
Botanophila biseriata (Huckett, 1965: 83): Alaska to Northwest Territories, s. toB.C.
Botanophila brevipalpis (Huckett, 1929: 180): British Columbia to Alberta, s. toWyo. Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
*Botanophila consolata (Huckett, 1966: 244): CA
Botanophila defector (Huckett, 1965: 83): Yukon Territory to Northwest Territories, s. toMan.
Botanophila destinatum (Huckett, 1965: 84): AK
Botanophila flavidisquama (Hucket, 1965: 853): AK
Botanophila formiceps (Huckett, 1947: 27): CA
Botanophila fugax (Meigen, 1826: 174): ??? Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
Botanophila fumidipennis (Huckett, 1965: 84): Alaska &Yukon Territory
Botanophila furcula (Huckett, 1965: 85): NWT
*Botanophila glauca (Coquillett, 1900: 452): AK, CA
Botanophila herschelensis (Huckett, 1965: 85): YT
Botanophila hucketti (Ringdahl, 1935: 26): ???
*Botanophila impersonata (Huckett, 1929: 114): Washington & Alberta to Manitoba, s. to Utah & South Dakota
*Botanophila incrassata (Stein, 1920: 88): British Columbia&Wash.
*Botanophila latifrontalis (Huckett, 1924: 30): Michigan to Massachusetts, s. to Arizona &Georgia
Botanophila laxifrons (Huckett, 1965: 86): Alaska to Northwest Territories, s. toCalif.
Botanophila leucosa (Huckett, 1965: 86): Alaska to Northwest Territories, s. toMan.
Botanophila miniatura (Huckett, 1965: 87): Alaska toN.W.T.
Botanophila moriens (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1505): Alaska to Greenland, s. to British Columbia& Labrador) Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
Botanophila nordica (Huckett, 1965: 88): Alaska to Que.
Botanophila obtruda (Huckett, 1965: 88): Alaska to Quebec, s. toMan.
Botanophila parvicornis (Malloch, 1920: 283): AK
*Botanophila praefecta (Huckett, 1966: 250): British Columbia, s. to California &Colorado
Botanophila profuga (Stein, 1916: 141): Alaska to Greenland, s. to Colorado& Labrador-, Europe, China, Japan Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
*Botanophila protuberans (Malloch, 1919: 1): New York;Maryland
*Botanophila pseudospinidens (Huckett, 1966: 245): California
Botanophila puberalis (Huckett, 1965: 89): Yukon Territory &Northwest Territories
Botanophila pulviventris (Huckett, 1965: 89): Alaska toN.W.T.
Botanophila recedens (Huckett, 1965: 90): Yukon Territory toN.W.T.
Botanophila relativa (Huckett, 1965: 90): Alaska to Labrador, s. toCalif.
Botanophila ringdahli (Drew, 1963: 147): Alaska, s. to California & Wyo.; Ontario to Labrador,s.toN.H.
Botanophila rubrigena (Schnabl, 1915: 11): Alaska Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
*Botanophila salutaris (Huckett, 1966: 252): California;Colorado
Botanophila sericea (Malloch, 1920: 280): Alaska to Northwest Territories, s. to Colorado, Quebec& Labrador), Finland, Sweden Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
*Botanophila sodalis (Huckett, 1966: 253): California
*Botanophila solidiceps (Huckett, 1966: 254): Oregon
*Botanophila sperata (Huckett, 1966: 247): California
Botanophila subnitida (Malloch, 1920: 283): Alaska
*Botanophila trilineata (Stein, 1898: 245): Alberta to South Dakota & Michigan, s.toColo.
*Botanophila trivittata (Stein, 1898: 246): British Columbia, s. to Utah; Ontario to Quebec, s. toVa.
Botanophila vallaris (Huckett, 1965: 91): Yukon Territory;California
Botanophila varians (Huckett, 1965: 92): Yukon Territory to Northwest Territories, s. to Idaho &Wyo.
Botanophila varicolor (Meigen, 1826: 167): Alaska & Yukon Territory, s. to Utah; North Carolina), Europe, Russia, China Reference: Xue & Song, 2007
Botanophila velutina (Huckett, 1965: 92): Alaska to Northwest Territories, s. toB.C.

Coquillett, D.W. 1900. Papers from the Harriman Alaska Expedition. IX. Entomological results (3): Diptera. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 2: 389-464.
Lintner, J.A. 1883. Reports on the injurious and other insects of the State of New York. Rpt. 1: First annual report [for 18820, 381 pp. Albany, N.Y.
Malloch, J.R. 1918. Diptera from the southwestern United States. Paper IV. Anthomyiidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 44: 263-319, 1 pl.
Malloch, J.R. 1919a. New species of flies (Diptera) from California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 9: 297-312.
Malloch, J.R. 1919b. One new genus and two new species of Anthomyiidae from the vicinity of Washington, D. C. (Diptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 32: 1-14.
Malloch, J.R. 1920. Scientific results of the Katmai Expedition of the National Geographic Society. XII. Descriptions of Diptera of the families Anthomyiidae and Scatophagidae. Ohio Journal of Science 20: 267-288.
Huckett, H.C. 1924. A systematic study of the Anthomyiinae of New York, with special reference to the male and female genitalia. Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. 77: 1-91, 18 pls.
Huckett, H.C. 1929a. New Canadian anthomyids belonging to the genus Hylemyia Rob.-Desv. (Muscidae, Diptera) [part]. The Canadian Entomologist 61: 110-119
Huckett, H.C. 1929b. New Canadian anthomyids belonging to the genus Hylemyia Rob.-Desv. (Muscidae, Diptera) [part]. The Canadian Entomologist 61: 161-168
Huckett, H.C. 1947. The North American species of the subgenus Botanophila Lioy, genus Hylemyia sens. lat. (Diptera, Muscidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 55: 1-33, 2 pls. (Biodiversity Heritage Library)
Huckett, H.C. 1965. The Muscidae of Northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland (Diptera). Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 42, 369 pp.
Huckett, H.C. 1966. New species of Anthomyiidae and Muscidae from California (Diptera).Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 34: 235-305.
Walker, F. 1849. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part IV. British Museum (Natural History), London. Pp. [3] + 689-1172 + [2]

Ingresado el 25 de diciembre de 2020 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de enero de 2020

Tetrigidae: Tetrix vs Paratettix

The family Tetrigidae of pygmy grasshoppers has been relatively neglected in the party of taxonomy. This has led to several contradictions in identification and much confusion. I have noticed a lot of requests for keys, which are lacking, most of which are outdated, and contain confusing terminology that may bore those interested in this group. In addition, some checklists involve species with no accessible records of occurrence in the covered region(s) and contradictory/outdated generic and specific placements. Now fortunately this group appears to have been treated much better and more recently outside of North America. The most recent, useful source in tetrigid taxonomy for North America, specifically Canada, was a 1985 article in the Government of Canada's The Insects and Arachnids of Canada series, authored by Vickery and Kevan titled "The grasshoppers, crickets and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions : Ulonata: Dermaptera, Cheleutoptera, Notoptera, Dictuoptera, Grylloptera, and Orthoptera". Obviously, this publication does not cover the numerous additional tropical genera and species of tetrigids found further south.

In this journal post, I'm starting rather simple, with the separation of the genera Paratettix and Tetrix. Firstly, the family Tetrigidae can be characterized by the pronotum or thorax being extended backward into a point, with this point looking like the end of pairs of wings but are actually not; the wings/tegmina if present consist of a usually darker, more rigid membranous mass visible just under the end point of the pronotum. Thus the pronotum often covers the wings entirely.

Paratettix and Tetrix are similar to each other and also probably the most common along with Tettigidea, which has less protruding eyes, a pronotum that covers a little bit of the neck giving a hooded appearance, and looks more like an acridid grasshopper in build.

Differences between Tetrix and Paratettix:

In the future, the Nearctic species of Tetrix may be delineated, but Paratettix is more problematic to identify to species. I may also form a more photographic and comprehensive guide to tetrigid fauna.

Ingresado el 15 de enero de 2020 por aispinsects aispinsects | 13 comentarios | Deja un comentario

25 de abril de 2019

Checklist of and guide to the species of wasps in the genus Scolia in the US and Canada

Checklist of species of wasps in the genus Scolia in the US and Canada

S. bicincta (Fabricius, 1775)
S. bifasciata (Swederus, 1787)
S. consors (Saussure, 1863)
S. dubia (Say, 1837)
S. guttata (Burmeister, 1853)
S. mexicana (Saussure, 1858)
S. nobilitata (Fabricius, 1805)


Guide to the species of wasps in the genus Scolia in the US and Canada

S. bicincta ( Fabricius, 1775; MacKay, 1987)

  • Eastern US
  • Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
  • Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
  • Underside of abdomen black; head all black; body covered in black hair; tergites 2 and 3 with broad pale white transverse bands, sometimes divided into large spots; legs black

S. bifasciata (Swederus, 1787, p. 281)

S. consors ( Saussure, 1863; Bartlett, 1912, p. 317; MacKay, 1987)

  • CO, Baja Calif.
  • Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
  • Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
  • Underside of abdomen not black
  • Thorax covered in yellowish gray or whitish hairs; antennae black; legs black
  • From descriptions in Bartlett, sounds to be extremely distinct in abdominal pattern from other species. The sides of tergites 1 and 2 red, ventral of tergite 2 also red, tergite 4 with two large irregular yellow marks almost confluent

S. dubia ( Say, 1837; Bartlett, 1912, p. 319-321; MacKay, 1987)

  • Widespread
  • Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
  • Tergites with first and second black and third and backwards red; yellow markings present as either spots on T3 (ssp. dubia dubia) or on face/antennae (ssp. dubia haematodes: AZ-TX); head and thorax brown or black
  • NOTE: This species can be found from California to the eastern coast. Two subspecies are rather sympatric and are thus important in distinguishing species/subspecies. S. dubia haematodes is found in California whereas the farthest west S. dubia dubia has been recorded is in Arizona. S. dubia haematodes differs from S. dubia dubia by the lack of yellow spots on the abdomen. This subspecies is practically indistinguishable from Triscolia ardens, a scoliid in a different genus, in areas where the latter occurs which include California through Texas, without examination of the wing veins. Several people have mentioned that T. ardens does not occur in eastern Texas, specifically the city of Austin or eastern, and have identified similar scoliids as S. dubia haematodes for this reason. However, I disagree with these actions. While I do not have access to nor seen any specimens, according to jonathan142, there have been collections of T. ardens in these areas in eastern Texas. Besides that, I think such a small difference in range should not be a deciding factor for either S. dubia or T. ardens, especially in the face of a rapidly changing biosphere. It may be possible that individuals of S. dubia haematodes have yellow markings on the borders of the eyes and bases of antennae, as MacKay mentions in the key, and that T. ardens lacks these markings, but I have no evidence confirming the latter. However, T. ardens may be significantly larger than S. dubia haematodes, at least for females, but this will depend on the beetle host.

S. guttata ( Burmeister, 1853; Bartlett, 1912, p. 325-327; MacKay, 1987)

  • AZ, NM, c. TX
  • Body not entirely black
  • Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
  • Tergite 3 with 2 small pale yellow or whitish spots, usually with this pattern continuing to other tergites; legs black

S. mexicana ( Saussure, 1858; Bartlett, 1912, p. 338; MacKay, 1987) = S. nigrescens

  • TX, west to AZ
  • Body entirely black; legs black

S. nobilitata (Fabricius, 1805; Bartlett, 1912, p. 319-321; MacKay, 1987)

  • AZ-FL
  • Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
  • Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
  • Underside of abdomen not black
  • Thorax covered in yellowish or golden hairs; if covered in grayish hairs, antennae (and legs?) reddish; legs usually red

References

Bartlett, O. C. 1912. The North American Digger Wasps of the Subfamily Scoliinae, Annals of the Entomological Society of America 5: 293-340. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11920809#page/342/mode/1up

Hurd P.D. 1952. The Scoliidae of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 1(6): 141-152. https://essig.berkeley.edu/documents/cis/cis01_6.pdf

MacKay W.P. 1987. Scoliid Wasps of the Southwestern United States. Southwestern Naturalist 32(3): 357-362. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3671453?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

Nearctica Vol. 2. http://nearctica.com/nomina/pdfs/volume2/S_ZWASP.pdf

Porter, C.C. 1981. Scoliidae (Hymenoptera) of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. The Florida Entomologist 64(3): 441-453. http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/57607/55286

Swederus, N.S. 1787. Fortsattning af Beskrisningen pa 50 nya Species af Insecter. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens, Nya Handlingar 8: 276-290. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/180245#page/303/mode/1up

Ingresado el 25 de abril de 2019 por aispinsects aispinsects | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario