15 de enero de 2020

Tetrigidae: Tetrix vs Paratettix

The family Tetrigidae of pygmy grasshoppers has been relatively neglected in the party of taxonomy. This has led to several contradictions in identification and much confusion. I have noticed a lot of requests for keys, which are lacking, most of which are outdated, and contain confusing terminology that may bore those interested in this group. In addition, some checklists involve species with no accessible records of occurrence in the covered region(s) and contradictory/outdated generic and specific placements. Now fortunately this group appears to have been treated much better and more recently outside of North America. The most recent, useful source in tetrigid taxonomy for North America, specifically Canada, was a 1985 article in the Government of Canada's The Insects and Arachnids of Canada series, authored by Vickery and Kevan titled "The grasshoppers, crickets and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions : Ulonata: Dermaptera, Cheleutoptera, Notoptera, Dictuoptera, Grylloptera, and Orthoptera". Obviously, this publication does not cover the numerous additional tropical genera and species of tetrigids found further south.

In this journal post, I'm starting rather simple, with the separation of the genera Paratettix and Tetrix. Firstly, the family Tetrigidae can be characterized by the pronotum or thorax being extended backward into a point, with this point looking like the end of pairs of wings but are actually not; the wings/tegmina if present consist of a usually darker, more rigid membranous mass visible just under the end point of the pronotum. Thus the pronotum often covers the wings entirely.

Paratettix and Tetrix are similar to each other and also probably the most common along with Tettigidea, which has less protruding eyes, a pronotum that covers a little bit of the neck giving a hooded appearance, and looks more like an acridid grasshopper in build.

Differences between Tetrix and Paratettix:
- In Tetrix, the fastigium in dorsal view or top of the head is noticeably wider than the width of a single eye in the same plane.
http://orthoptera.speciesfile.org/Common/editImgSnd/GetThumb.aspx?ImageID=111378&Width=640
- In Paratettix, the fastigium in dorsal view is more variable in width.
http://orthoptera.speciesfile.org/Common/editImgSnd/GetThumb.aspx?ImageID=111251&Width=640
http://orthoptera.speciesfile.org/Common/editImgSnd/GetThumb.aspx?ImageID=111250&Width=640
- In Tetrix, the fastigium in lateral view advances forward enough between the eyes to a distance noticeably past the eyes.
http://orthoptera.speciesfile.org/Common/editImgSnd/GetThumb.aspx?ImageID=151364&Width=640
- In Paratettix, the fastigium in lateral view advances forward between the eyes to a distance not noticeably past the eyes.
http://orthoptera.speciesfile.org/Common/editImgSnd/GetThumb.aspx?ImageID=111255&Width=640
- In Tetrix, the head appears to be more flatter on top and straight-margined than Paratettix.
- The middle femora of Paratettix can be lobed underneath (the lower margin wavy) but is often less the case in Tetrix.

In the future, the Nearctic species of Tetrix may be delineated, but Paratettix is more problematic to identify to species. I may also form a more photographic and comprehensive guide to tetrigid fauna.

Ingresado el 15 de enero de 2020 por aispinsects aispinsects | 11 comentarios | Deja un comentario

25 de abril de 2019

Checklist of and guide to the species of wasps in the genus Scolia in the US and Canada

Checklist of species of wasps in the genus Scolia in the US and Canada

S. bicincta (Fabricius, 1775)
S. bifasciata (Swederus, 1787)
S. consors (Saussure, 1863)
S. dubia (Say, 1837)
S. guttata (Burmeister, 1853)
S. mexicana (Saussure, 1858)
S. nobilitata (Fabricius, 1805)

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Guide to the species of wasps in the genus Scolia in the US and Canada

S. bicincta ( Fabricius, 1775; MacKay, 1987)
- Eastern US
- Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
- Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
- Underside of abdomen black; head all black; body covered in black hair; tergites 2 and 3 with broad pale white transverse bands, sometimes divided into large spots; legs black

S. bifasciata (Swederus, 1787, p. 281)
- NY?
- Description is treacherous, we seem to just pretend it doesn't exist. I've heard from unscholarly sources that Scolia hirta, a European species, is a synonym?
- https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/180245#page/303/mode/1up

S. consors ( Saussure, 1863; Bartlett, 1912, p. 317; MacKay, 1987)
- CO, Baja Calif.
- Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
- Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
- Underside of abdomen not black
- Thorax covered in yellowish gray or whitish hairs; antennae black; legs black
- From descriptions in Bartlett, sounds to be extremely distinct in abdominal pattern from other species. The sides of tergites 1 and 2 red, ventral of tergite 2 also red, tergite 4 with two large irregular yellow marks almost confluent

S. dubia ( Say, 1837; Bartlett, 1912, p. 319-321; MacKay, 1987)
- Widespread
- Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
- Tergites with first and second black and third and backwards red; yellow markings present as either spots on T3 (ssp. dubia dubia) or on face/antennae (ssp. dubia haematodes: AZ-TX); head and thorax brown or black
- NOTE: This species can be found from California to the eastern coast. Two subspecies are rather sympatric and are thus important in distinguishing species/subspecies. S. dubia haematodes is found in California whereas the farthest west S. dubia dubia has been recorded is in Arizona. S. dubia haematodes differs from S. dubia dubia by the lack of yellow spots on the abdomen. This subspecies is practically indistinguishable from Triscolia ardens, a scoliid in a different genus, in areas where the latter occurs which include California through Texas, without examination of the wing veins. Several people have mentioned that T. ardens does not occur in eastern Texas, specifically the city of Austin or eastern, and have identified similar scoliids as S. dubia haematodes for this reason. However, I disagree with these actions. While I do not have access to nor seen any specimens, according to jonathan142, there have been collections of T. ardens in these areas in eastern Texas. Besides that, I think such a small difference in range should not be a deciding factor for either S. dubia or T. ardens, especially in the face of a rapidly changing biosphere. It may be possible that individuals of S. dubia haematodes have yellow markings on the borders of the eyes and bases of antennae, as MacKay mentions in the key, and that T. ardens lacks these markings, but I have no evidence confirming the latter. However, T. ardens may be significantly larger than S. dubia haematodes, at least for females, but this will depend on the beetle host.

S. guttata ( Burmeister, 1853; Bartlett, 1912, p. 325-327; MacKay, 1987)
- AZ, NM, c. TX
- Body not entirely black
- Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
- Tergite 3 with 2 small pale yellow or whitish spots, usually with this pattern continuing to other tergites; legs black

S. mexicana ( Saussure, 1858; Bartlett, 1912, p. 338; MacKay, 1987) = S. nigrescens
- TX, west to AZ
- Body entirely black; legs black

S. nobilitata (Fabricius, 1805; Bartlett, 1912, p. 319-321; MacKay, 1987)
- AZ-FL
- Body neither "entirely black" nor "entirely black except for isolated pairs of pale markings on tergites"
- Tergites not with first and second black and third and backwards red (i.e not S. dubia)
- Underside of abdomen not black
- Thorax covered in yellowish or golden hairs; if covered in grayish hairs, antennae (and legs?) reddish; legs usually red

References

Bartlett, O. C. 1912. The North American Digger Wasps of the Subfamily Scoliinae, Annals of the Entomological Society of America 5: 293-340. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11920809#page/342/mode/1up

Hurd P.D. 1952. The Scoliidae of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 1(6): 141-152. https://essig.berkeley.edu/documents/cis/cis01_6.pdf

MacKay W.P. 1987. Scoliid Wasps of the Southwestern United States. Southwestern Naturalist 32(3): 357-362. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3671453?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

Nearctica Vol. 2. http://nearctica.com/nomina/pdfs/volume2/S_ZWASP.pdf

Porter, C.C. 1981. Scoliidae (Hymenoptera) of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. The Florida Entomologist 64(3): 441-453. http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/57607/55286

Swederus, N.S. 1787. Fortsattning af Beskrisningen pa 50 nya Species af Insecter. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens, Nya Handlingar 8: 276-290. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/180245#page/303/mode/1up

Ingresado el 25 de abril de 2019 por aispinsects aispinsects | 1 comentarios | Deja un comentario

14 de abril de 2019

Checklist of and guide to the crane flies in the subgenus Yamatotipula (Tipulidae: Tipula) with marked wings in the US and Canada (BETA)

NOTE: This is a Beta. Until the final is published, information put together may not be complete, consistent, and/or easy to follow for people not familiar with flies or these in particular. The terminology used here is at an advanced level. It is advised that you use sources from BugGuide etc. to define much of the jargon used here.

A large proportion of species of crane flies in the subgenus Yamatotipula (Tipulidae: Tipula) possess unmarked wings. Since many of these aren't really identified past subgenus online, it may be more effective to provide a guide and checklist of species with marked wings, where the markings of the wings make identification much easier as well as association to the subgenus. Since this lowers the number of species considerably, it may be easier to create a guide of these species throughout all of America north of Mexico. This list does not include Tipula ludoviciana, T. osceola, or T. sayi, which are not considered to have "marked" wings despite a darkened costal border on the wing. However, all those 3 are the only ones in the US and Canada that have this distinct costal border, generally overlap only in Florida, and thus can be separated from all others here: https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/aispinsects/22602-checklist-of-and-guide-to-crane-flies-in-the-subgenus-tipula-yamatotipula-that-are-possibly-in-florida.

Checklist of crane flies in the subgenus Yamatotipula (Tipulidae: Tipula) with marked wings in the US and Canada

aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b)
caloptera (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
calopteroides (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)
cognata (Doane, 1901; Alexander, 1967k)
comanche (Alexander, 1916b; Dietz, 1917)
concava (Alexander, 1943k)
conspicua (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)
continentalis (Alexander, 1941e)
eluta (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
floridensis (Alexander, 1926o)
fraterna (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)
fulvilineata (Dietz, 1917; Doane, 1901; Alexander, 1967k)
furca (Walker, 1848; Alexander, 1943k)
kennicotti (Alexander, 1915h, p. 480; Alexander, 1943k)
maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m)
manahatta (Alexander, 1919e; Alexander, 1943k)
meridiana (Doane, 1912; Alexander, 1967k)
noveboracensis (Alexander, 1919e; Alexander, 1943k)
nuntia (Alexander, 1946b)
sackeniana (Alexander, 1918; Alexander, 1943k)
strepens (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
subeluta (Johnson, 1913; Alexander, 1943k)
tricolor (Fabricius, 1775; Alexander, 1943k)
vicina (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)
xanthostigma (Dietz, 1917)

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T. aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b, p. 49)
1. (USA: AR, TX)
2. Allied to T. comanche, T. fulvilineata, T. noveboracensis, T. vicina
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
4. Wing cell R5 not darkened except for tip? "Tip" is ambiguous but not defined
6. Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow, but the 3 basal ones light brown (see allied species)
7. Wing pattern with a potentially strongly contrasting hyaline color
8. Cell Br color unclear, discal cell color unknown, stigma brown
9. Thorax with broad dark brown median stripe; the lateral stripes indistinct
10. Stigma brown and general appearance of wing darker
11. Female has wings reduced and reaching to the end of the third abdominal segment
12. Head with indistinct brown, longitudinal median line running between the eyes dorsally, less distinct than in T. comanche
13. Abdomen brownish gray with the tergites laterally clear gray, ninth tergite tipped broadly with bright yellowish, frontal prolongation of head brownish gray, tibiae yellowish brown and a little darker at the tip
14. Possible observation of male: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/22180993, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/10120418
15. Possible observation of female: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20378967

T. caloptera (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada: ON, QC, NL south to USA: KS, MO, AR, and FL
- Allied to T. calopteroides, T. conspicua, T. strepens, commonly confused with T. noveboracensis
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened; R5 with basal portion darkened
- Flagellum of antennae bicolored with the basal portion of flagellar segments brown and the remaining yellow
- Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell with outer half or more darkened (see allied species)
- Abdomen with brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
- Male antennae short, not passing wing bases if held back
- Large, coloration of wing dark fuscous-brown

T. calopteroides (Alexander, 1919e, p. 168; Alexander, 1943k)
- USA: PA, TN, NC and SC
- Allied to T. caloptera, T. conspicua, T. strepens, possibly easily confused with T. noveboracensis
- Flagellum of the antennae not uniformly yellow
- Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened; R5 with basal portion darkened
- Flagellum of antennae distinctly bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
- Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell with outer half or more darkened (see allied species)
- Abdomen with brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
- Male antennae long, well passing wing bases if held back
- Wing pattern strongly contrasting and vein A2 bordered with brown except for the base; brown at the base of cell Bm is practically lacking except for the brown seam on CuA; more closely approaches strepens in that there is more white or light color than in T. caloptera

T. cognata (Doane, 1901, p. 123; Alexander, 1967k) syn. alexandriana
- Canada: BC south to USA: CA, UT
- Allied to T. tricolor & co in the east
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; uniformly brown with basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow
- Wing cell R5 darkened (see allied species)
- Wing really without much of a white crossband
- Side of the thorax unmarked; wing pattern not contrasting; perhaps much like kennicotti of the east, but wing is almost uniformly dusky colored except for cell Bm and the area before the brown stigma, no dark costal stripe; wing darkened apically as well; thorax without a median stripe
- Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up
- https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/34039#page/149/mode/1up

T. comanche (Alexander, 1916b, p. 50; Dietz, 1917)
- USA: TX
- Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. fulvilineata, T. noveboracensis, T. vicina
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- Wing cell R5 with at least outer portion not darkened; it is almost completely hyaline
- Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow, but the more basal ones brownish gray to yellowish brown; elongated, with the flagellomeres slightly incised beneath (see allied species)
- Wing pattern very pale and diffused
- Cell Br and Bm colors unknown, stigma yellowish brown
- Thorax with broad dark brown median stripe; the lateral stripes shortened
- Antennal lengths unknown, first antennal segment rather long
- Stigma yellowish brown, general appearance of wing lighter
- Female with normal wings
- Head with distinct narrow, brown, longitudinal median line running between the eyes dorsally, more distinct than in T. aspidoptera
- Abdomen brownish gray with the tergites laterally broadly dull yellow, frontal prolongation of head rather long and bright gray, tibiae brown

T. concava (Alexander, 1926o, p. 294; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada; USA: MI-ME, south to KS, MO, AR and TN
- Allied to T. eluta, T. furca.
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Flagellum of antennae bicolored with bases of flagellar segments black and the remainder yellow
- Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs (see allied species); cells M3 and CuA1 with pale coloration.
- Hyaline and dark patterns not very contrasting, dark costal pattern does not intrude into Br before Rs
- Discal cell darkened on at least apical half, abdomen with stripes
- Pleura light gray and vaguely striped longitudinally with a darker gray
- https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12051017

T. conspicua (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)
- USA: NC
- Allied to T. caloptera, T. calopteroides, T. strepens
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Flagellum of antennae bicolored with bases of flagellar segments black and the remainder yellow
- Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell completely pale (see allied species)
- Abdomen without longitudinal stripes on each side, ochre-yellow
- Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up

T. continentalis (Alexander, 1941e, p. 85)
- USA: AK, south to CA, CO
- Highly tentative placement, wings likely not as marked so as to be distinct
- Wings not heavily striped with brown

T. eluta (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada: ON-NB south to USA: IA, IL, AR, LA, and FL
- Allied to T. concava, T. furca. See this figure of the wings of furca and eluta (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Flagellum of antennae bicolored
- Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs (see allied species)
- Hyaline and dark patterns not very contrasting, dark costal pattern does not intrude into Br before Rs to form a bisinuate posterior edge
- Discal cell entirely hyaline, abdomen without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side

T. floridensis (Alexander, 1926o, p. 292)
1. USA: FL
2. Allied to T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow, this yellow growing darker in the distal segments
4. Wing cell R5 darkened (not paled in comparison to surrounding cells) along with the entire wing apex; stigma yellow in the basal portion and dark brown in the distal portion (see allied species)
5. Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to far into the base of cell M3; center of cell M4 extensively pale; outer end of cell Bm may be darkened
6. T. fraterna types were lost and I cannot translate Loew's language, may be indistinguishable from fraterna without examination of genitalia
7. Antennae of male moderately long, extending back to base of abdomen
8. Abdominal tergites pale yellowish brown with a broad dark brown sublateral stripe
9. Femora brownish yellow, with the tips narrowly and vaguely darkened
10. Described from Gainesville, Florida

T. fraterna (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k; Hynes, 1961)
1. USA: NH, south to FL
2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments nearly black and the remainder yellow, this yellow growing darker in the distal segments
4. Wing cell R5 darkened, may be pale in outer edge, but in such case surrounded by considerable darkness and not continuous in color with the pale area at the central/discal area of the wing; stigma yellow in the basal portion and dark brown in the distal portion (see allied species)
5. Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to near posterior wing margin into cells M3 and CuA1
6. fraterna types were lost, I cannot translate Loew's language, and Alexander (1943k) was not intended to give heavy descriptions. This species may be indistinguishable from floridensis without examination of genitalia and exclusive cases (pale color in R5).
7. Antennae relatively long
8. Femora with brown tips
9. Cell bm of wing mostly pale, may be darkened in outer edge
10. Description of what Hynes (1961) found that most closely resembles the species: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50586310#page/235/mode/1up
11. Surprisingly, a photo exists on BugGuide of an individual with the partially paled R5: https://bugguide.net/node/view/1251749/bgimage

T. fulvilineata (Dietz, 1917; Doane, 1901; Alexander, 1967k)
- USA: OR, CA & Channel Island
- Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. comanche, T. noveboracensis, T. vicina
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- Either R5 darkened or R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened...
- Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments yellow (diagnostic feature, but may be very difficult to notice in photos; see allied species)
- Wing pattern with strongly contrasting brown and hyaline color
- Cell Br dark brown except tip, cell Bm and stigma colors unsure
- Antennae of female reaching a little more than half way to the base of the wings
- Don't understand the terminology of original description, maybe resembles the eastern T. noveboracensis
- Possible iNaturalist observation: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/5704718
-https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/34039#page/150/mode/1up

T. furca (Walker, 1848; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada: ON, QC USA: WI, ME south to KS, TX, FL
- Allied to T. concava, T. eluta. See this figure of the wings of furca and eluta (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Flagellum of antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
- Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs (see allied species for following characters)
- Hyaline and dark patterns contrasting, dark costal pattern seems to intrude into cell Br on Rs to form a bisnuate posterior edge (forming a semi eye spot)
- Discal cell completely hyaline or clear
- Antennae short
- Abdomen may have brown, longitudinal stripes on each side

T. kennicotti (Alexander, 1915h, p. 480; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada: NWT, AB, QC, USA: ND, south to UT, CO, KS, ID and OH
- Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
- Note that the wings of this species are so poorly marked that it may not even look like a marked wing species
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; flagellar segments 3-5 with bases paler than the remainder and the rest of the flagellar segments are relatively uniformly brown
- Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma pale-brown (see allied species for following characters)
- Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to discal cell
- Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura
- Wings very poorly marked, brown veins contrasting with background color
- Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen

T. maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m, p. 182)
1. USA: TN
2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma color unknown (see allied species for following characters)
5. Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to far into the base of cell M3; center of cell M4 extensively pale; outer end of cell Bm may be darkened
6. Side of the thorax with conspicuous brown marks in the cephalic (anterior?) portion of the anepisternum, bottom half of the katepisternum, and on the propleuron, distinguishes from T. floridensis and T. fraterna.
7. Written as distinct from T. subeluta, perhaps the thoracic pleural marks differ, otherwise not too sure how
8. Abdominal tergites dark

T. manahatta (Alexander, 1919e, p. 169; Alexander, 1943k)
1. USA: NY, south to TN and FL
2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
3. Flagellum of antennae uniformly yellow with basal antennal segments dark (diagnostic among marked-wing species)
4. Similar to T. sackeniana, and thus T. tricolor, with most of the wing darkened and with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to mid-length of cell CuA1.

T. meridiana (Doane, 1912, p. 58; Alexander, 1967k)
- USA: CA, UT, AZ
- Wings not heavily striped with brown
- https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/43634#page/70/mode/1up

T. noveboracensis (Alexander, 1919e, p. 167; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada: ON-NF USA: ME, south to MI and MD
- Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. comanche, T. fulvilineata, T. vicina
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow, but the more basal ones yellowish brown (see allied species for following characters)
- Wing pattern with strongly contrasting brown and hyaline color
- Cell Br mostly dark brown, cell Bm abruptly clear, stigma yellow
- Thorax most likely with narrow dark brown median stripe
- Antennae short, with male's reaching back to a distance before wing root
- Observation of male(?): https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12555448

T. nuntia (Alexander, 1946b, p. 140)
- USA: WA
- Possibly allied to T. tricolor & co in the east
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments yellow and the remainder brownish black
- R5 darkened? (see allied species for following characters)
- Wing with white crossband extending from base of stigmal marking only to the base of discal cell
- Side of the thorax unmarked
- Wings with more contrasting pattern
- Abdomen with stripes?
- Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen

T. sackeniana (Alexander, 1918a, p. 62; Alexander, 1943k)
1. USA: NY to CT, south to TN and GA
2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma color unknown (see allied species for following characters)
5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
6. Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura; outer end of cell Bm of wing most likely hyaline
7. Wings with more contrasting pattern, brightened in the longitudinal center of wing, veins yellow
8. Abdomen without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
9. Coloration of the thorax and abdomen reddish yellow; sides of the basal segments of abdomen more yellowish; the terminal segments of abdomen scarcely darkened
10. Femora dark brown with the basal portion lighter
11. Male hypopygium without cluster of long setae on each side of the 9th tergite
12. iNaturalist observation: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8185042

T. strepens (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada: ON-QC-NF, south to USA: KS, NJ and perhaps VA
- Allied to T. caloptera, T. calopteroides, T. conspicua
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened; R5 with basal portion darkened
- Flagellum of antennae bicolored weakly
- Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell with outer half or more darkened (see allied species for following characters)
- Abdomen with brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
- Male antennae long, well passing wing bases if held back
- Wing pattern not contrasting and vein A2 not bordered with brown or weakly
- Smaller, coloration of wing grayish fuscous

T. subeluta (Johnson, 1913; Alexander, 1943k)
1. USA: MA, south to LA and FL
2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma color unknown (see allied species for following characters)
5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
6. Side of the thorax with transverse, oblique brown mark running from the shoulders to the base of the second pair of legs, covering the cephalic (?) portions of the anepisternum and katepisternum; outer end of cell Bm of wing darkened
7. Abdominal tergites dark yellow

T. tricolor (Fabricius, 1775; Alexander, 1919d, Alexander, 1943k)
1. Canada: ON, QC USA: MN, ME, south to CO, AR, LA, and FL
2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. xanthostigma
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; strongly bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma dark fuscous (see allied species for following characters)
5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
6. Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura; outer end of cell Bm of wing hyaline
7. Wings with more contrasting pattern, brightened in the longitudinal center of wing, veins yellow
8. Abdomen with or without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
9. Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen; the terminal segments of the abdomen extensively darkened
10. Male hypopygium with a cluster of long setae on each side of the 9th tergite

T. vicina (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)
- Canada: ON-QC-NF USA:MN, south to KS and PA
- Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. comanche, T. fulvilineata, T. noveboracensis, possibly easily confused with T. furca and T. concava
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments not yellow, but basal segments brownish yellow (see allied species for following characters)
- Wing pattern pale and diffused
- Cell Br and Bm mostly pale, stigma brown
- Thorax with narrow dark brown median stripe
- Abdomen with a longitudinal stripe on each side
- Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up
- BOLD systems: http://v3.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=392173

T. xanthostigma (Dietz, 1917)
1. USA: CO
2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments black and the remainder yellow
4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma yellow (see allied species for following characters)
5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
6. Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura
7. Wings with more contrasting pattern, brightened in the longitudinal center of wing, veins yellow
8. Abdomen with or without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
9. Thorax yellowish-gray to pale brown, abdomen sordid yellow
10. Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up
11. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/194/mode/1up
12. Very likely photo of mating pair: https://bugguide.net/node/view/1312934/bgimage (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/22279925)

References

Alexander, 1915h. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera. Part. 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67: 458-514. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1915h.pdf)

Alexander, 1916b. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Canadian Entomologist 48: 42-53. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1916b.pdf)

Alexander, 1918a. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Part IV. Canadian Entomologist 50: 60-71. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1918a.pdf)

Alexander, 1919d. The crane-flies of New York. Part I. Distribution and taxonomy of the adult flies. Memoirs, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station 25: 767-993.
(https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1919d.pdf)

Alexander, 1926o. Undescribed species of crane-flies from the eastern United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). Part III. Entomological News 37: 291-297. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1926o.pdf)

Alexander, 1927m. Undescribed species of crane-flies from the eastern United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). Part IV. Entomological News 38: 181-184. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1927m.pdf)

Alexander, 1941e. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Part XV. Canadian Entomologist 73: 85-90. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1941e.pdf)

Alexander, 1945k. Undescribed species of crane-flies from the western United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). Part IV. Entomological News 56: 155-161. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1945k.pdf)

Alexander, 1946b. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Part XXIV. Canadian Entomologist 77: 140-144. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1946b.pdf)

Alexander, 1967k. The crane flies of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 8: 1-263. (https://essig.berkeley.edu/documents/cis/cis08.pdf)

Dietz, 1917. Key to the North American species of the tricolor group of the dipterous genus Tipula Linnaeus, with descriptions of four new species. Entomological News 28: 145-151. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/189/mode/1up)

Doane, 1901. Descriptions of new Tipulidae. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 9: 97-127. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/34039#page/123/mode/1up)

Doane, 1912. New western Tipula. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 5: 41-61. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/43634#page/53/mode/1up)

Fabricius, 1775

Hynes, 1961. The designation and description of the neotype of Tipula fraterna Loew (Tipulidae-Diptera). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 55: 43-45. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50586310#page/235/mode/1up)

Johnson, 1913. Insects of Florida. I. Diptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 32: 37-90. (http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/1407//v2/dspace/ingest/pdfSource/bul/B032a03.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y)

Loew, 1863

Oosterbroek, P. Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/index.php)

Ingresado el 14 de abril de 2019 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

20 de marzo de 2019

Checklist of and guide to crane flies in the subgenus Tipula (Yamatotipula) that are possibly in Florida

Many of these have not actually been recorded from Florida, but may exist there solely based on the fact that the Catalogue of Craneflies of the World by Oosterbroeck does not provide the southern limits of these species. The ones that have been recorded from Florida are marked with an asterisk (*). Southwestern species are hardly known at all. Even though species recorded from the southwest may still be found east because of limited information about their ecology, western species tend to favor the north rather than south. Tipula jacintoensis and T. comanche are recorded only from California and Texas, respectively, but it is doubtful that their southern range extends east. Therefore, I do not include western species here and in the previous eastern lists.

aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b, p. 49)
brevifurcata (Alexander, 1926o, p. 291)
caloptera* (Alexander, 1943k)
calopteroides (Alexander, 1943k)
catawbiana (Alexander, 1940s, p. 609)
conspicua (Alexander, 1943k)
eluta* (Alexander, 1943k)
floridensis* (Alexander, 1926o, p. 292)
fraterna* (Alexander, 1943k)
furca* (Alexander, 1943k)
jacobus* (Alexander, 1943k)
ludoviciana* (Alexander, 1919h, p. 196)
maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m, p. 182)
manahatta* (Alexander, 1943k)
nephophila (Alexander, 1940s, p. 610)
osceola* (Alexander, 1927m, p. 181)
sackeniana (Alexander, 1943k)
sayi* (Alexander, 1943k)
subeluta* (Alexander, 1943k)
succincta (Alexander, 1940q, p. 151)
tephrocephala (Alexander, 1943k)
tricolor* (Alexander, 1943k)

-------------------------------------------

T. aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b)
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
- R5 not darkened except for tip
- Poorly described, may not even be in Yamatotipula, only described from Arkansas and Texas
- Resembles T. tricolor, apparently

T. brevifurcata (Alexander, 1926o)
-Allied to T. catawbiana, T. nephophila, T. succincta
- Wings seem to be unmarked except for stigmal marking and the irregularly darkened apices; a brown seam on CuA and dm-cu present
- Antennae with basal segments yellow and the remaining black, extend back to root of halteres in male
- Costal border of wings not darkened, clear yellow
- Apex of wing suffused with brown
- Thorax gray with three brown stripes
- Femora with proximal half yellow gradually darkening near midlength
- Abdominal tergites brownish yellow

T. caloptera* (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. calopteroides, T. conspicua
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
- Abdomen with brown stripes
- Male antennae short, not passing wing bases if held back

T. calopteroides (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. caloptera, T. conspicua
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
- Abdomen with brown stripes
- Male antennae long, well passing wing bases if held back

T. catawbiana (Alexander, 1940s)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. nephophila, T. succincta
- Wings seem to be unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and irregularly darkened apices, narrow brown seam on CuA present?
- Antennae with yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
- Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
- Apex of wing darkened
- Rs about twice the length of dm-cu
- Thorax gray with 4 darker stripes
- Femora with less than proximal half yellow and thus mostly black
-Abdominal tergites brownish black

T. conspicua (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. caloptera, T. calopteroides
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
- Abdomen without brown stripes, ochre-yellow

T. eluta* (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. furca. See this image of drawings of the wings (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs
- Hyaline and dark patterns not very contrasting, dark costal pattern does not intrude into Br before Rs

T. floridensis* (Alexander, 1926o)
- Allied to T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
- Wings marked, CuA likely with conspicuous, dark seam
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; antennae of male moderately long, extending back to base of abdomen
- R5 and entire wing apex darkened
- Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching from stigma, through inner end of discal cell, to far into base of M3
- fraterna types were lost and I cannot translate Loew's language, may be indistinguishable from fraterna without examination of genitalia
- Abdominal tergites pale yellowish brown with a broad dark brown sublateral stripe
- Femora brownish yellow, with the tips narrowly and vaguely darkened
- Described from Gainesville

T. fraterna* (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. floridensis, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- R5 darkened, may be pale in outer edge, but in such case surrounded by considerable darkness and not continuous in color with the center/discal area of the wing where paleness would be
- Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching posterior to M3 and M4 or far
- fraterna types were lost, I cannot translate Loew's language, and Alexander (1943k) was not intended to give heavy descriptions. This species may be indistinguishable from floridensis without examination of genitalia and exclusive cases (pale color in R5).
- Femora with brown tips

T. furca* (Walker, 1848; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. eluta. See this image of drawings of the wings (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
- R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
- Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs
- Hyaline and dark patterns contrasting, dark costal pattern seems to intrude into Br before Rs (forming a semi eye spot)

T. jacobus* (Alexander, 1931; Alexander, 1943k)
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA
- Antennae with uniformly dark antennae or with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
- Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
- Apex of wing clear

T. ludoviciana* (Alexander, 1919h)
- Allied to T. sayi
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, conspicuous dark seam on CuA
- Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
- Costal border of wings dark brown
- Male antennae super long, about as long as body. This feature distinct among Nearctic species
- Photograph: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21972337

T. maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m)
- Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
- Wings marked, CuA likely with conspicuous, dark seam
- Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
- R5 and entire wing apex darkened
- Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching from stigma far into base of M3
- Side of the thorax with conspicuous brown marks in the cephalic (anterior?) portion of the anepisternum, bottom half of the katepisternum, and on the propleuron, distinguishes from T. floridensis and T. fraterna.
- Written as distinct from T. subeluta, but descriptions don't help to separate
- Abdominal tergites dark

T. manahatta* (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)
- basal segments of the antennae dark while the rest or the flagellum is uniformly light yellow (diagnostic among marked-wing species)
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam

T. nephophila (Alexander, 1940s)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. catawbiana, T. succincta
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and irregularly darkened apices, narrow brown seams on CuA
- Antennae with yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
- Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
- Apex of wing darkened
- Rs about 1.5-1.67 times the length of dm-cu
- Thorax with 4 inconspicuous stripes
- Femora with more than basal half yellow
- Abdominal tergites brownish black

T. osceola* (Alexander, 1927m)
- Allied to T. sayi and T. ludoviciana
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, presence of seam on CuA unknown, presumably not given resemblance to T. sayi
- Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow; flagellomeres appear to be very constricted so as to look binodal in the male. In females, may be strongly constricted at the incisures
- Costal border of wings dark brown
- Male antennae relatively long
- Described from Gainesville

T. sackeniana (Alexander, 1918; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
- Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
-R5 darkened
- Wing with white crossband not extending past the discal cell, or at least not far
- Side of the thorax unmarked
- Thorax and abdomen reddish brown
- Femora dark brown with the basal portion lighter

T. sayi* (Alexander, 1911; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. osceola, T. ludoviciana
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA
- Antennae bicolored with the bases OF flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
- Costal border of wings dark brown
- Male antennae short

T. subeluta* (Johnson, 1913; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. tricolor
- Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
-R5 darkened
- Wing with white crossband extending from base of stigmal marking to the base of discal cell
- Side of the thorax with transverse, oblique brown mark running from the shoulders to the base of the second pair of legs.
- Abdominal tergites dark yellow

T. succincta (Alexander, 1940q)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. catawbiana, T. nephophila
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and with the apex irregularly darkened, there may be a narrow dark seam on CuA
- Antennae with brownish yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
- Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
- Apex of wing somewhat darkened
- Rs nearly straight, about twice the length of dm-cu
- Thorax with 4 stripes bordered with black
- Femora yellow with dark color restricted to tip
- Abdominal tergites brown

T. tephrocephala (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA (sometimes light), apex of wing not darkened
- Antennae bicolored with base OF flagellar segments light yellow, the remainder dark brown for each one

T. tricolor* (Fabricius, 1775; Alexander, 1943k)
- Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta
- Antennae bicolored
-R5 darkened
- Wing with white crossband not extending past the discal cell, or at least not far
- Side of the thorax unmarked
- Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen

---------------------------------------------------
T. iroquois for reference (Alexander, 1915)
- Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and with the apex irregularly darkened, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA?
- Antennae with uniformly dark antennae
- Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
- Apex of wing darkened

Ingresado el 20 de marzo de 2019 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

19 de marzo de 2019

Checklist of crane flies in the subgenus Tipula (Yamatotipula) in Eastern North America

aprilina (USA: ME, south to TN, SC)
aspidoptera (USA: AR, TX)
brevifurcata (USA: TN, NC)
caloptera (Canada to FL)
calopteroides (USA: PA, TN, NC and SC)
carsoni (Canada: NF, NB; USA:ME)
catawbiana (USA: WV, VA, TN, NC, GA)
cayuga (Canada: ON, QC, NF; USA: MI, south to TN, NC)
concava (Canada; USA: MI-ME, south to KS, MO, AR and TN)
conspicua (USA: NC)
dejecta (USA: south to ILand NC)
eluta (Canada to FL)
floridensis (USA: FL)
fraterna (USA: NH, south to FL)
furca (Canada to FL)
iroquois (USA: south to TN and NC)
jacobus (Canada to FL)
kennicotti (Canada: NWT, AB, QC, USA: ND, south to UT, CO, KS, ID and OH)
ludoviciana (USA: LA, FL)
maculipleura (USA: TN)
manahatta (USA: NY, south to TN and FL)
nephophila (USA: TN, NC)
noveboracensis (Canada: ON-NF USA: ME, south to MI and MD)
osceola (USA: FL)
sackeniana (USA: NY to CT, south to TN and GA)
sayi (Canada to FL)
strepens (Canada: ON-QC-NF, south to USA: KS, NJ and perhaps VA)
subeluta (USA: MA, south to LA and FL)
succincta (USA: IN)
sulphurea sulphurea (Canada: AB to USA: Maine, south to Minn, IN and RI)
tephrocephala (Canada; USA: ID, RI, PA, VA, TN, NC)
tricolor (Canada to FL)
vicina (Canada: ON-QC-NF USA:MN, south to KS and PA)

Ingresado el 19 de marzo de 2019 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

18 de marzo de 2019

Species of Dermestes north of Mexico

Subgenus Dermestes
ater
lardarius
peruvianus
pulcher* Canada: Manitoba, New Brunswick, Quebec; U.S.A.: Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Texas, Wisconsin
reductus* Canada: Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec; U.S.A.: North Dakota
signatus* Canada; U.S.A

Subgenus Dermestinus
caninus Canada; Hawaiian Is.; Mexico; U.S.A Mexico; U.S.A.: California, New Mexico, Texas
carnivorus
fasciatus Canada: Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan; U.S.A
frischii
maculatus
marmoratus Canada; Mexico; U.S.A.
talpinus Canada; U.S.A
undulatus
sardous* California
nidum** Canada; U.S.A
haemorrhoidalis** U.S.A.
rattus** Canada: Alberta, British Columbia; U.S.A.: Alabama, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Ohio, Oregon, Utah, Wyoming California, Oregon, Wyoming

*Not yet in BugGuide

**These are in Dermestinus, not in BugGuide, have been recorded in America by Hava (2015), but the addition of these species overshoots the species count of 10 for this subgenus as set by BugGuide (1 of these would still fit but not sure which of these is counted as part of the 10 by BG).

Ingresado el 18 de marzo de 2019 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

09 de marzo de 2019

Checklist of Erioptera (Mesocyphona) species of limoniid crane flies in Florida

This subgenus of limoniid crane flies can be recognized in the genus by the combination of patterned wings and lack of a discal cell. About 15 species occur in the United States, 8 of which may naturally reside in Florida (9 members in list accounts for subspecies) and are listed below.

- E. caliptera caliptera (widespread)
- E. caliptera femoranigra? (Costa Rica, Mexico)
- E. evergladea (Florida only)
- E. femoraatra (southeastern US; LA-GA)
- E. knabi (widespread)
- E. needhami (eastern US and Canada)
- E. parva (eastern US)
- E. serpentina (eastern US; MA-NC; not recorded from Florida, but may occur)
- E. tantilla (southern US; KS-TX-MS; no official records from Florida (?), but appears to occur quite commonly)

Most species can be identified based on their wing pattern. There are only a few groups of species that may share the same wing pattern. The following list provides the species that, as far as I know, have been photographed on iNaturalist and on BugGuide. Using photographs as references for species/subspecies identification that will be explained following this section will be best.

- E. caliptera caliptera
- E. knabi (single iNaturalist photograph from the US available)
- E. needhami
- E. parva
- E. tantilla

Here are the species that have not been photographed that occur or may occur in Florida...

- E. evergladea
- E. serpentina

...and here are the species/subspecies that have been tentatively photographed.

- E. caliptera femoranigra (may or may not have been photographed, see https://bugguide.net/node/view/1632859/bgimage)
- E. femoraatra (may or may not have been photographed, see https://bugguide.net/node/view/1632859/bgimage)

(Photographs of either of the two previously mentioned taxa on BugGuide may not be exclusive to the linked BugGuide submission, and there may be photographs on iNaturalist as well)

-------------------------------------Species/subspecies identification--------------------------------------------

E. caliptera caliptera
- Femora with 2 black rings
- White spots on brown pattern: larger white spots neat arranged along the costa of the wing, remainder of the wing (interior) suffused with random white and brown spotting. A white, disorganized linear spot may run transverse along the middle of the wing from costa to one of the CuA veins
- Similar species: E. femoraatra, E. needhami

E. caliptera femoranigra
- Similar to E. caliptera caliptera in wing and femora pattern.
- Femora darker, wings darker
- From what I can gather, practically indistinguishable from E. femoraatra aside from geographic range. No information about wings or genitalia appears to be sufficient
- Similar species: E. femoraatra, E. needhami

E. knabi
- Please visit iNaturalist photo from California that captures this species
- Thorax with 2 narrow brown dorsal lines and scutellum white divided by a brown line
- Distinct complex wing pattern; Clusters of hyaline spots with each individual spot bordered by the brown lines that depict veins of the wing; clusters of hyaline spots separated but organized in a row of brown that runs along the costa with the thickness of the brown reaching to Rs and R4; remainder of the wing almost entirely hyaline
- In other words, wing patterned with an assortment of white and brown "mickey mouse ears"
- Femora white in basal half, dark in apical half, with the dark apical half divided by a light-colored ring
- Similar species: E. evergladea

E. femoraatra
- Similar to E. caliptera in wing and femora pattern
- Femora darker, wings darker
- Indistinguishable from E. caliptera femoranigra aside from geographic range
- Similar species: E. caliptera, E. needhami

E. evergladea
- Similar to E. knabi in wing pattern; but with much thinner wings and patterns, different thoracic pattern, a uniformly white scutellum (divided by brown line in E. knabi), and more distinct white longitudinal stripes on the side of the thorax?
- Similar species: E. knabi

E. needhami
- Similar to E. caliptera and E. femoraatra in wing pattern
- Femora with only 1 brown ring. This feature separates from similar species
- Similar species: E. caliptera, E. femoraatra

E. parva
- One of the most distinct species; clear wings spotted with brown
- Femora with one brown ring

E. serpentina
- Similar to E. needhami in wing and femora pattern
- May not be separable from needhami without inspection of male genitalia

E. tantilla
- Distinct wing pattern. Very thin white spots on brown wings. Wings appear almost entirely brown.
- Often assumes an unusual "rear sticking up" pose
- Originally, the subgenus Mesocyphona is supposed to be characterized by the lack of discal cell by atrophy of the basal portion of M3 (in other words, M1+2 is split), but the reason this was not considered in this post is because this is contradicted by E. tantila. This species appears to have the discal cell lacking by atrophy of the m-m crossvein instead (a feature of subgenus Erioptera) or, in other words, vein CuA1 is split. However, it is the only member of the subgenus with this feature in the US and Canada. The Caribbean has a similar species E. costalis that has a similar appearance to E. tantila, but differs from having the M3 being atrophied instead of the m-m crossvein like in the other members of Mesocyphona in the US/Canada.

Ingresado el 09 de marzo de 2019 por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

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