17 de mayo de 2022

Chickweed ID

"C. fontanum has hairy leaves, that are oblong, elongate, with only the central vein line sunken. S. media has hairless ovate, to heart-shaped blades, with sharply, but only slightly, sunken pinnate vein lines, usually showing the vein pattern. The other members of the S. media complex aren't in in Humbolt Co., and S. apetela, that might come close, has no petals.

S. media is a good weed to eat!"



Publicado el mayo 17, 2022 05:29 TARDE por leshell leshell | 3 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Trefoil ID

If the soil is wet most of the year from the Cedar River, I'd call it pedunculatus. Alternately I like to check for a hollow stem (small hole), that pedunculatus has, and L. corniculatus lacks. My mnemonic is that the hollow stem is the straw to suck up the water, of the wet soil, that pedunculatus grows in.

  • Stewart W


Publicado el mayo 17, 2022 05:00 TARDE por leshell leshell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

09 de mayo de 2022

Cat's Ear ID

I wanted to double-check my confidence after noticing some unusual looking Cat's-ear while IDing. This was a helpful resource with photos: https://wildflowerfinder.org.uk/Flowers/C/CatsEar(Smooth)/CatsEar(Smooth).htm

The easiest tell appears to be the hairiness of the leaves.

Publicado el mayo 9, 2022 05:22 TARDE por leshell leshell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Dandelion ID

Telling the two common dandelion species apart is challenging and until recently, I didn't even realize there were two species. Here's a great resource I found on identifying them:

:Just about everyone would say they could easily identify dandelion but very few are aware that there are two species found in Minnesota, this and Common Dandelion (T. officinale). While very similar, they can be distinguished on several characteristics, all except one somewhat obscure, especially in stunted specimens found in mowed turf where they typically occur. Red-seeded Dandelion typically has smaller flowers, rarely over 1 inch across and more consistently deeply lobed leaves, the lobes more triangular to lance-like than Common Dandelion, with tips strongly curved back towards the base, as well as the lobes at the tip being approximately the same size as those along its length. The phyllaries on Common Dandelion rarely have the protuberance just below the tip, where they are often present on Red-seeded Dandelion. But easily, when fruits are present, the seeds are clearly red or in variations of purple or brown compared to the dull brown or greenish brown seeds of the more common T. officinale. Though clearly far less common than T. officinale, herbarium collections of T. erythrospermum are spread throughout the state and it is likely greatly under reported in Minnesota, as who is paying attention to this species anyway?"


Publicado el mayo 9, 2022 02:57 MAÑANA por leshell leshell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

08 de mayo de 2022

Elder Idenfication

@spinescence do you have any tips for differentiating elders before they have berries?

@leshell the shape of the inflorescence! in the northwest, any elders with a raceme are racemosa, hence the name. the leaves look different too, often with less leaflets per leaf, but that's not always reliable.


Publicado el mayo 8, 2022 10:14 TARDE por leshell leshell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

07 de mayo de 2022

Speedwell ID

Common Speedwells of the PNW and resources to assist in telling them apart.

Thyme-Leaf Speedwell
Veronica serpyllifolia

Leaf margins of thyme-leaf speedwell are smooth, and leaf surfaces lack hairs; whereas common field speedwell and corn speedwell have serrated leaf margins and leaves with hairs on the surface. Flowers develop on stalks that arise from leaf axils on stems and are very small, usually 1/8 to 1/4 inch across. Each flower has four white petals (one petal is smaller than the others) with dark blue or purple longitudinal stripes. Like other speedwells, each flower has two stamens and a single style. Thyme-leaf speedwell flowers are replaced by heart-shaped fruits that contain seeds.

Corn Speedwell
Veronica arvensis

Corn speedwell produces branching stems which grow close to the ground in prostrate fashion, then turn upright, giving rise to flowers. Leaves are arranged opposite to one another on lower stems and form clusters on elevated stems. Individual leaves on lower stems are approximately ½ to ¾-inch long, mostly oval, with serrated margins. Leaves on elevated stems are shorter and narrower than lower leaves, generally, do not have serrated margins, and are pointed at the tip. All leaf and stem surfaces are hairy.

Single flowers develop in leaf axils near the tips of elevated stems. Flowers are small, ¼ to ½-inch across, with blue petals and dark-blue stripes. As with other speedwell species, each flower has two stamens and a single style. Fruits are heart-shaped, hairy, and contain yellow seeds."


Germander Speedwell
Veronica chamaedrys

"Upper and lower leaves are the same size and shape and opposite arranged like common speedwell but leaf margins of germander speedwell have rounded teeth and common speedwell has fine sharp teeth. Fruit is a tiny heart-shaped capsule and capsules are arranged in cluster from a single stalk arising from leaf axils. Flowers are tiny, pale blue and borne as loose clusters on long stalks."


Creeping Speedwell
Veronica filiformis

Leaves are small (8 to 12 mm long) and round or kidney shaped and have sparse hairs. Lower leaves are opposite and leaves on the flowering stem are alternate. Leaf edges are notched with predominately rounded teeth. Leaves are borne from slender and delicate stems on short stalks (2 mm long). Upper and lower leaves are similar in size and shape.

Flowers are slighly smaller than a dime (8 mm diameter) and showy with split light blue and blue designs. Flowers are borne on long (up to 2.5 cm) stalks that arise singly from leaf axils on the upper stems.


"It can be difficult to distinguish creeping speedwell from germander and corn speedwell. Germander speedwell, also a perennial, tends to be more erect and has larger, elongated leaves. Corn speedwell is primarily a winter annual that grows in small mounds. Corn speedwell can be distinguished by it heart-shaped seed capsules that it produces in the spring."


Bird's-eye Speedwell
Veronica persica

Upper and lower leaves are the same size and shape. Fruit is a heart shaped capsule. Flowers are tiny and borne on long stalks.


Publicado el mayo 7, 2022 08:30 TARDE por leshell leshell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Yellow Rocket ID

"American Yellow Rocket is a circumpolar species native to North America and Asia, and is more common in the western states and into Canada. In Minnesota it is primarily found in the Arrowhead region near the rocky shore of Lake Superior. It is far less common here than the look-alike, non-native Garden Yellow Rocket (Barbarea vulgaris). While there are small differences in flower size, leaf shape and fruit arrangement, the most obvious difference is the fringe of sparse hairs on at least some leaf auricles, where Garden Yellow Rocket is completely hairless."


Publicado el mayo 7, 2022 07:59 TARDE por leshell leshell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Oregon Grape ID

Native Plant Salvage put together an excellent guide (with photos!) here:


"What’s in a name?

I learned these two native species as “Short-leaved” and “Long-leaved” as an easy way to distinguish them: M. aquifolium has many fewer leaflets per leaf (5-9), while M. nervosa has 9-19 leaflets per leaf. Additional features reflected in some common names refer to: M. nervosa having duller, less shiny leaves than M. aquifolium; and M. aquifolium having much more pronounced holly-like foliage (“aquifolium” specifically translates to “sharp-leaved”). And if youreally want to get into the weeds on this, you can look at the veins on the underside of the leaves: “nervosa” refers to the fan-like veins vs. the one central vein on the M. aquifolium. Whew!"

Publicado el mayo 7, 2022 07:39 TARDE por leshell leshell | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

Aven Identification

I asked Stewart Wechsler for some tips on differentiating between Avens. I'm shaving what he shared because it's very helpful and I know I'll need to refer to it again in the future!

First the basal leaves of G. macrophyllum usually end in one big leaflet, and those of G. urbanum usually end in 3 leaflets. While the final leafets may not be the most reliable, and consistent, feature, it doesn't require a flower stalk to have developed, and can be spotted from further away than the hairs. Then the petiole and rachis (extension of the petiole between the leaflets of a pinnately compound leaf), and the flower stalk of G. macrophyllum have long, spreading, white hairs. G. urbanum has small, inconsequential hairs, that aren't that easy to notice. On the flower stalk of G. macrophyllm there are leafy stipules connecting the bases of petioles to the flower stalk, that are tear-drop shaped, might be 1 cm long, and twist up 45 degrees. Those of G. urbanum are round in outline, about 2 cm long, toothed, and horizontal. They look like one more pair of leaflets at the base of the petiole. Also the upper sides of the bases of the petioles of G. urbanum are usually red pigmented, while those of .G macrophyullum are green.

The red on upper side of the base of the petiole of G. urbanum is on leaves at the base of the plant, (or on rosettes before a flower stalk develops).

Here is a good example of the large, more or less rounded, horizontal stipules of G. urbanum:


It also seems that a feaure of the seeds is being highlighted that I haven't figured out yet. The 3rd photo here shows the smaller, tear-drop shaped stipules of G. macrophyllum:


It looks like the seeds or "achenes" of G. macrophyllum have straighter tips: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/56595530

And those of G. urbanum (4th photo) have more curled tips:

Adding some of Stewart's comments on additional observations:


Rather than one large final leaflet, 3 palmate final leaflets, hairs on petioles, and stalk shorter than on G. macrophyllum, stipules at base of petioles larger, rounder, and more horizontal than G. macrophyllum. Unlike the smaller, upward angled, tear-drop shaped stipules of G. macrophyllum, stipules, suggest a pair of leaflets at base of petiole, also attached to the stalk, as G. urbanum stipules suggest.

AJ Wright's notes:


In this case, the main distinction is that the basal leaves have terminal leaflets fully tripartite. The petals are also smaller than G. macrophyllum, the leaves often darker in color, and the habitat a bit drier. It also forms solid mats with more regularity.

Publicado el mayo 7, 2022 05:18 TARDE por leshell leshell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario