Reduction of the labial and mandibular vibrissae as part of extreme adaptation to anti-parasite grooming in impalas (Aepyceros), part 1

@stephenssupersurrealsouls @maxallen @tonyrebelo @jeremygilmore @beartracker @paradoxornithidae @capracornelius @dejong @botswanabugs @nyoni-pete @jwidness @bobby23 @jakob @zarek @ludwig_muller @adamweasley360 @ptexis @matthewinabinett @ldacosta @marcel_hendrik

Please see https://pupford.com/why-dogs-have-whiskers/ and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whiskers and http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Vibrissal_behavior_and_function.

It is known that impalas (Aepyceros)

The anatomical structure seen as particularly adapted for grooming is a small toothcomb on each side (left and right), consisting of mandibular incisors and a canine (https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg14018992-900-science-impalas-wobbly-teeth-get-to-grips-with-ticks/ and https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb05361.x and https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb05361.x).

The following are particularly clear illustrations of the 'toothcomb' of Aepyceros melampus, which consists of a narrow incisor (mandibular incisor 2), two needle-like teeth with loose bases (mandibular incisor 3 and the mandibular canine), and a cone-like gingival papilla (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/178533731 and https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-tender-moment-shared-by-two-female-impala-32019187.html?imageid=4D457A53-C732-4EA3-9D77-EDF2ABD5E672&p=4989&pn=1&searchId=e623827709c92224586328b59a115995&searchtype=0 and https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/impala-skull-ef9b723f33ea4aa59591c277dfdf5a20).

The above photos show that incisor 3 and the canine are so narrow (and flexibly attached to the jaw) that they are specialised for combing pelage rather than for foraging.

However, what seems to have been overlooked is that, in anatomical terms, the vibrissae on the lips and chin may be more extremely adapted than are the teeth.

A NEW SEARCH-IMAGE

It makes sense that the labial and mandibular vibrissae have been reduced in impalas.

The lips and chin of most ruminants are sensitive to the three-dimensional arrangement of objects in the environment. This aids foraging, particularly in darkness.

However, such sensitivity would be disconcerting during the rubbingly intimate, time-consuming actions of allogrooming by means of small front teeth. Furthermore, impalas tend not to forage at night.

In this Post, I confirm the extreme reduction of the vibrissae in impalas, relative to the following particularly comparable genera:

  • Kobus, which is ecologically complementary to impalas within Africa,
  • Odocoileus, which is the closest counterpart for impalas in North and central America,
  • Dama, which is the closest counterpart for impalas in Europe,
  • Antilope, a gazelle that is the closest bovid counterpart for impalas in India,
  • Axis, which is the closest cervid counterpart for impalas in India, and
  • Tragelaphus, which somewhat resembles impalas in possessing a toothcomb, but - being non-gregarious - does not particularly allogroom.

AEPYCEROS: CLEAREST ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SHORTNESS OF THE LABIAL AND MANDIBULAR VIBRISSAE IN IMPALAS

Please focus, in the following, on the longest hairs on the upper and lower lips, chin, and ventral surface of the mandibles.

https://www.masterfile.com/image/en/400-04974304/backlit-portrait-of-a-female-impala-antelope-south-africa

https://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/impala-close-up-royalty-free-image/1761644315?phrase=pretty+impala&adppopup=true

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-images-impala-image7407374

https://www.dreamstime.com/impala-extreme-close-up-rams-face-base-lyre-shaped-horns-ear-pattern-clearly-visible-image186103431

https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-images-impala-antelope-image2496589

https://www.alamy.com/young-impala-up-close-to-the-camera-kruger-national-park-south-africa-image341500266.html?imageid=882D0FE4-778C-430A-A1BB-FC695981BFE9&p=1241644&pn=1&searchId=4f54d58eadfb521d0bf75b52c08479cb&searchtype=0

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/impala-at-chobe-national-park-gm487650471-38958900?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/female-impala-south-africa-portrait-gm166281745-23680643?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.dreamstime.com/young-impala-ewe-aepyceros-melampus-first-rays-rising-sun-young-impala-ewe-first-rays-rising-sun-image151014425

https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-impala-image27131875

https://www.dreamstime.com/three-impala-ewes-first-rays-rising-sun-aepyceros-melampus-image150798962

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-black-faced-impala-african-wildlife-background-super-nature-ewe-stares-distance-as-seen-wilds-namibia-image61383867

https://www.gettyimages.in/detail/photo/black-faced-impala-adult-female-etosha-national-royalty-free-image/996251050?adppopup=true

https://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/close-up-of-an-impala-flehming-etosha-national-park-royalty-free-image/139141499?phrase=impala+head&adppopup=true

https://www.masterfile.com/image/en/400-03988310/a-female-impala-antelope-in-south-africa

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/adorable-cute-impala-antelope-lamb-large-51326017

ILLUSTRATIONS OF COMPARABLE TAXA

KOBUS

scroll to second photo in https://animalia.bio/kob

https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-young-male-puku-kobus-vardoni-head-portrait-chobe-national-park-image01176613.html

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/195852918

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/183372208

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/182712595

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/133434562

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66965085

https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/profile-of-female-puku-antelope-royalty-free-image/538293511?phrase=puku+kobus+vardonii&adppopup=true

ODOCOILEUS

Odocoileus virginianus:

https://www.flickr.com/photos/9036119@N02/6602547867

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/deer-in-wild-gm684558652-125665875?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://stevecreek.com/why-whitetail-deer-have-chin-whiskers/#:~:text=Those%20chin%20whiskers%20play%20an,can%20catch%20sight%20of%20them.

https://worlddeer.org/do-deer-have-whiskers/

https://www.deviantart.com/vseger/art/Deer-Whiskers-852148968

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-fawn-in-nature-during-winter-gm2002342231-560271412?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-head-shot-of-doe-deer-gm1181687771-331531385?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-whittail-deer-gm545636482-98403555?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/a-portrait-of-a-female-whitetail-deer-in-the-wild-pennsylvania-poconos-usa-gm1480690655-508276186?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/whitetail-deer-gm1031712758-276352552?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/doe-portrait-royalty-free-image/517303025?adppopup=true

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-wild-adult-deer-field-close-up-wild-adult-deer-field-northwest-image243633459

Odocoileus hemionus:

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/beautiful-adult-female-deer-portrait-of-doe-gm1592491659-529550161?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/side-view-female-deers-head-323592176

DAMA

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/muzzle-young-deer-without-antlers-close-2330416759

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-deer-close-muzzle-wild-animal-2185377499

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-part-muzzle-nose-animal-young-herbivorous-animals-deer-family-cervidae-green-grass-habits-artiodactyls-image247044571

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-fallow-deer-in-woodland-setting-gm1252625422-365617585?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/hungry-deer-waiting-food-through-car-1234785217

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/fallow-deer-stag-dama-dama-with-big-antlers-gm1269476392-372798410?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/deer-close-gm471643716-62899630?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/portrait-with-a-blurred-background-of-two-fallow-deer-cows-gm1138646286-304071913?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/elk-gm96784912-9977209?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.alamy.com/close-up-muzzle-of-a-european-deer-cub-without-antlers-image559897010.html?imageid=67766BAA-2E43-49D9-9DA0-5A819434818D&p=378471&pn=1&searchId=84e6be69442cd8dfa2746c3ac8234252&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/the-muzzle-of-a-young-deer-without-antlers-close-up-image559993187.html?imageid=A4FE07F6-8233-4E45-8DE9-BE5257637A45&p=378471&pn=2&searchId=b953b8b11324b842dfeeefa352c97549&searchtype=0

https://depositphotos.com/photo/deer-muzzle-close-while-animal-feeding-selective-sharpness-focus-deer-594666368.html and https://depositphotos.com/photo/deer-muzzle-close-while-animal-feeding-selective-sharpness-focus-deer-594666372.html and https://depositphotos.com/photo/deer-muzzle-close-while-animal-feeding-selective-sharpness-focus-deer-594666606.html and https://depositphotos.com/photo/deer-muzzle-close-while-animal-feeding-selective-sharpness-focus-deer-594666368.html and https://depositphotos.com/photo/deer-muzzle-close-while-animal-feeding-selective-sharpness-focus-deer-594666372.html

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-fallow-zoo-on-summer-day-2163902069

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallow-deer-looking-into-camera-lens-1450246940

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/black-textured-nose-ungulate-animal-macro-1722750334

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-photo-deer-nose-sunny-light-1619571067

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/dama-european-male-detail-muzzle-front-1090527029

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-view-beautiful-brown-spotted-fallow-1308319822

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-portrait-fawn-1715945356

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-muzzle-close-red-wild-nature-2184960743

https://www.dreamstime.com/beautiful-young-sika-deer-close-up-wild-nature-beautiful-young-sika-deer-close-up-wild-nature-image194018005

https://es.123rf.com/photo_188399762_portarit-de-ciervo-hembra-en-la-m%C3%A1gica-luz-del-atardecer.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_5444805_retrato-de-ciervos-selectiva-se-centra-en-los-ojos.html

ANTILOPE

https://depositphotos.com/photo/common-eland-taurotragus-oryx-95030600.html

https://depositphotos.com/photo/blackbuck-antilope-cervicapra-95029728.html

https://depositphotos.com/photo/blackbuck-antilope-cervicapra-95029842.html

https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=956904245140665

https://depositphotos.com/photo/blackbuck-antilope-cervicapra-95029780.html

https://depositphotos.com/photo/blackbuck-antilope-cervicapra-95029872.html

https://depositphotos.com/photo/blackbuck-antilope-cervicapra-95029754.html

https://depositphotos.com/photo/blackbuck-antilope-cervicapra-95029740.html

https://depositphotos.com/photo/blackbuck-antilope-cervicapra-95029744.html

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-impala-ram-nature-110292545

AXIS

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-cute-spotted-fallow-deer-image284127120

https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-images-close-up-female-spotted-deer-image21113229

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/detail-of-spotted-deer-muzzle-in-bardia-nepal-gm468553808-61075804

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-picture-of-an-axis-deer-gm1722385513-540914419?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.facebook.com/nikonasia/photos/a.394544838539/10159489703408540/?type=3

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-red-deer-stag-autumn-india-deer-true-deer-hoofed-ruminant-mammals-forming-family-cervidae-two-main-image224320969

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/front-portrait-female-fallow-deer-dama-52460320

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-female-fallow-deer-dama-55071109

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/spotted-deer-head-looking-camera-309029531

Identity?
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-deers-eye-wild-animal-concept-2302550387

TRAGELAPHUS

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-head-shot-cape-bushbuck-bush-2362926857

https://stock.adobe.com/images/bushbuck-cute-face/249698190

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/bushbuck-ewe-portrait-706912036

https://stock.adobe.com/images/bushbuck-cute-face/249698190?prev_url=detail

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-wild-african-bushbuck-antelope-341357768

https://stock.adobe.com/images/female-bushbuck-tragelaphus-scriptus-15673/616731614?prev_url=detail

https://www.african-safari-journals.com/antelope-pictures.html

https://pbase.com/mytmoss/image/128339182

https://www.alamy.com/bosbok-bushbuck-tragelaphus-scriptus-image211581089.html?imageid=1CDAB1AA-E1F1-444D-8A63-FAEC255957B9&p=648154&pn=1&searchId=f10c89e3e6ed721eee55cc7841a20b9a&searchtype=0

to be continued in https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/91368-reduction-of-the-labial-and-mandibular-vibrissae-as-part-of-extreme-adaptation-to-anti-parasite-grooming-in-impalas-aepyceros-part-2#...

Publicado el febrero 25, 2024 10:29 TARDE por milewski milewski

Comentarios

Vibrissae on lips and mandibles in various other Cervidae:

Cervus elaphus

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-portrait-deer-background-trees-image297238744

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-red-deer-hind-against-green-background-uk-image140206985

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-red-deer-hind-uk-image138919258

https://www.dreamstime.com/rotwild-kahlwild-image250978281

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-headshot-red-deer-doe-back-cervus-elaphus-image307430878

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/free-living-fallow-deer-real-bavarian-1614226708

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/red-deer-doe-gm182825312-13526896?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/deer-outside-during-the-day-gm543347632-97481071?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

Cervus canadensis

https://www.dreamstime.com/red-deer-eating-hay-close-up-head-shot-image109529953

Cervus nippon

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/side-portrait-of-wild-deer-gm520091172-90847055?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/sika-deers-or-spotted-deers-or-japanese-deers-in-natural-gm816315100-132104545?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.dreamstime.com/beautiful-close-up-young-deer-fawn-face-nature-fall-autumn-season-wild-healthy-grazing-colorful-red-orange-image164297020

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-deer-kasuga-taisha-shrine-nara-116340190

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/sika-deer-female-nose-mouth-cod-2307164993

https://www.dreamstime.com/deer-close-up-sad-doe-animals-zoo-beautiful-image127820443

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-1200086

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deers-head-close-look-690715354

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-of-fallow-deer-head-gm498401062-79628593?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-of-fallow-deer-head-gm498400986-79628541

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/nose-muzzle-deer-closeup-young-fawn-1482460088

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/muzzle-deer-closeup-young-fawn-forest-1469557577

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/behold-elegance-sensitivity-deers-snout-testament-2406287703

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/closeup-image-of-a-wild-deer-in-the-park-gm1083692918-290727117?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-of-fallow-deer-head-gm498401388-79628877?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-head-female-deer-garden-close-up-head-female-deer-garden-image288507716

Rucervus duvaucelii

https://depositphotos.com/photo/barasingha-rucervus-duvaucelii-95029680.html

https://depositphotos.com/photo/barasingha-rucervus-duvaucelii-95029660.html

Rucervus eldi

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/head-elds-deer-thailand-2206963

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-deer-82069606

Rusa alfredi

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-female-visayan-or-philippine-spotted-deer-cervus-alfredi-rusa-alfredi-96918304.html?imageid=6425828C-914F-4EAE-9011-BD5A9654CEB5&p=172933&pn=2&searchId=b953b8b11324b842dfeeefa352c97549&searchtype=0

Rusa timorensis

https://www.dreamstime.com/rusa-timorensis-javan-cervidae-deer-species-endemic-to-islands-java-bali-timor-including-le-leste-image199030610
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fluffy-little-deer-hunting-food-2326018777

Rusa unicolor

https://www.dreamstime.com/portrait-wild-sambar-buck-forest-close-up-portrait-profile-head-neck-wild-sambar-buck-showing-brown-long-shaggy-image139500124

Need identification

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/closeup-image-of-a-wild-deer-in-the-park-gm1083692918-290727117?phrase=axis+deer+deer+close+up+macro&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-face-deer-ruminant-mammals-forming-close-up-face-deer-ruminant-mammals-forming-image112327099

https://www.dreamstime.com/close-up-face-deer-ruminant-mammals-forming-family-cervidae-close-up-face-deer-image112327063

https://www.dreamstime.com/cute-female-deer-close-up-portrait-image190130847

Publicado por milewski hace 5 meses

Dama differs from Aepyceros in being able to bite items with the premolars:

https://depositphotos.com/photo/fallow-deer-dama-dama-76600285.html

Publicado por milewski hace 5 meses

TONGUES

Aepyceros

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/impala-sticking-tongue-out-709872856

Capreolus

(also showing vibrissae clearly) https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/roe-deer-capreolus-juvenile-head-study-2097176143

Muntiacus

https://www.alamy.com/reevess-muntjac-deer-muntiacus-reevesi-image245220460.html?imageid=72A64278-26C7-4906-9D07-FF86D9180BC9&p=16274&pn=1&searchId=bb2a56afdbfa89699f16c93e8f5304e2&searchtype=0

Cervus elaphus

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-closeup-506710186

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-closeup-506710189

Bos

https://www.massey.ac.nz/about/news/right-on-the-tip-of-their-tongues/#:~:text=%E2%80%9CHolstein%2DFriesian%20cattle%20possess%20a,gene%20and%20have%20black%20tongues.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318452557_BREED_VARIATION_IN_TONGUE_COLOUR_OF_DAIRY_AND_BEEF-CROSS-DAIRY_CALVES

https://www.flickr.com/photos/heideklein_orangenkopf/6109979171

https://www.alamy.com/a-close-up-of-a-black-and-white-dairy-cow-sticking-its-tongue-out-image156086638.html?imageid=FA3FA27D-F771-490F-B4DB-93A5A75AB08C&p=402545&pn=1&searchId=7280aa61667d318d9f47994fb0833a6f&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-funny-brown-cow-sticking-out-its-tongue-near-camino-de-santiago-way-171388693.html?imageid=4624466A-6963-447B-88F5-2DCA58B1EDF0&p=536807&pn=1&searchId=7280aa61667d318d9f47994fb0833a6f&searchtype=0

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/cow-sticking-out-tongue-gm858022104-141586829

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/funny-cow-tongue-tristan-savatier.html

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/jersey-cow-les-classics.html

https://stock.adobe.com/images/black-angus-heifer-cow-on-farm-being-funny-with-tongue-out/248066246

https://www.everypixel.com/q/cow-with-tongue?image_id=12397582941415437319

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/cow-trying-to-lick-her-owners-hand-gm1157731460-315985855?phrase=cow+sticking+out+tongue&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/a-cow-sticking-out-its-tongue-gm1377563424-442585952?phrase=cow+sticking+out+tongue&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/funny-cow-sticking-out-tongue-gm1488969238-513990960?phrase=cow+sticking+out+tongue&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/jersey-cow-tongue-gm172158163-3104443?phrase=cow+sticking+out+tongue&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/cow-tongue-2-brian-shaw.html

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/cow-tongue-extreme-brian-shaw.html

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/hungry-cow-eating-grass-funny-picture-matthias-hauser.html

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/cow-eating-fresh-grass-matthias-hauser.html

Publicado por milewski hace 5 meses

Camelidae, showing labial vibrissae (or the lack thereof):

Vicugna vicugna

https://www.dreamstime.com/baby-deer-close-up-image148820867

Lama pacos

The photos of this species are puzzlingly inconsistent. Some show labial vibrissae, whereas others show a remarkable lack of these vibrissae.

https://picryl.com/media/alpaca-face-furry-c55c5d?zoom=true

https://unsplash.com/photos/a-close-up-of-a-llamas-face-with-a-blurry-background-DfOqviZ2-jw

https://create.vista.com/unlimited/stock-photos/472929158/stock-photo-close-alpaca-face/

https://www.pexels.com/photo/close-up-photo-of-llama-s-head-9123455/

https://www.needpix.com/photo/1370506/llama-head-face-close-up-cute-woolly-portrait-nature-wild

https://www.sciencealert.com/llamas-hide-a-powerful-weapon-that-can-fight-deadly-virus-strains

https://create.vista.com/unlimited/stock-photos/115553986/stock-photo-closeup-of-young-alpaca-head/

https://es.123rf.com/photo_10347444_alpaca-vicugna-pacos.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_206324710_photograph-of-the-head-of-an-adult-alpaca-standing-in-a-field-on-the-south-island-of-new-zealand.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_20850703_llama-gran-canaria-espa%C3%B1a.html

Lama glama

https://es.123rf.com/photo_92493612_white-llama-face-close-up-funny-cute-looking-animal-image-blurred-background-with-copy-space.html

https://www.zdnet.com/article/i-tested-metas-code-llama-with-3-ai-coding-challenges-that-chatgpt-aced-and-it-wasnt-good/

https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/llama-close-up-profile-image-of-head-long-sutton-butterfly-and-wildlife-park/PUN-5229

https://es.123rf.com/photo_55048822_lama-cansado-en-el-zool%C3%B3gico.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_5432087_un-animal-de-llama-white-sobre-fondo-natural.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_132813890_retrato-de-un-onagro-tambi%C3%A9n-conocido-como-hemione-o-asno-salvaje-asi%C3%A1tico-es-una-especie-de-la.html

Lama guanicoe

As in L. pacos, the presence/absence of labial vibrissae is inconsistent.

https://es.123rf.com/photo_97657044_brillante-lama-adulto-mira-el-marco.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_15111762_lama-guanicoe-guanaco.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_48517261_retrato-de-un-lama-en-la-naturaleza.html

Camelus dromedarius

https://es.123rf.com/photo_7795801_jefe-de-camello-grande-cerca-de-monte-en-el-desierto-de-wadi-rum-jordan-jordan.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_18897854_camello-dromedario.html

Camelus bactrianus

https://es.123rf.com/photo_73931975_camellos-en-invierno-nieve-tiempo.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_22012453_un-retrato-de-camello-visto-desde-el-lado.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_14108988_primer-plano-de-una-cara-de-camello-desierto-de-transporte.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_7451602_portarretrato-de-la-boca-de-un-camello.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_102629144_retrato-de-un-camello-en-el-zool%C3%B3gico.html

https://es.123rf.com/photo_201069199_retrato-de-un-camello-en-el-zool%C3%B3gico-de-cerca.html

Publicado por milewski hace 5 meses
Publicado por milewski hace 5 meses
Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

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