05 de enero de 2024

Smelowksia ovalis vs americana

Very similar, but S. ovalis has usually more rounded leaflets. Both have pubescent leaf petioles but only S. americana has spreading hairs near the base of the petiole.


Publicado el enero 5, 2024 04:12 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

26 de diciembre de 2023

06 de agosto de 2023

Gymnocarpium Ferns of PNW

Gymnocarpium disjunctum and G. dryopteris are very hard to distinguish reliably from photos. The only perfectly reliable guide is based on genotype (G. dryopteris is an allotetraploid with one of the parents being diploid G. disjunctum).

G. dryopteris leaves are generally smaller, but hard to distinguish from young G. disjunctum.

The pinnules (leaflets) of the second pinna are usually highly asymmetric in size in G. disjunctum but similar in size or only mildly asymmetric in G. dryopteris. See https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/176866915. According to Hitchcock and Cronquist, >1.5x length difference is G. disjunctum and less is G. dryopteris. I would say that if they are nearly equal in length call it G. dryopteris and if they are >2x in length call it G. disjunctum, otherwise leave ID at genus level.

The basal pinnae of mature G. disjunctum are often 3-pinnate or 2-pinnate with moderately to deeply lobed terminal leaflets (3-pinnatifid).

Both ferns usually present in the field as somewhat dispersed groups of single fronds, each arising from a long wandering rhizome. If you can observe the second pinna pair in multiple such fronds the distinction should be clearer but it is annoying to photograph lots of them.

There are other small differences listed in Hitchcock and Cronquist but they are even subtler or microscopic (spore size).

Publicado el agosto 6, 2023 02:44 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

01 de junio de 2023


from https://www1.usgs.gov/csas/nvcs/unitDetails/860590

"Artemisia rigida is restricted to the Columbia Plateau scablands with shallow, poorly drained, lithic soil over fractured basalt that is often saturated in winter, but typically dries out completely to bedrock by midsummer. "

The area can't be bounded by one rectangle, but this iNaturalist view is mostly scabland around Whiskey Dick ridge:

Another area that has lots of readily accessed (but under-observed) scabland on top of small benches is Babcock Bench, just to the east of the Columbia river:

Scablands (as used here, not identical to channeled scablands) are common in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, and there are more localized patches to the north in Chelan County and east and northeast in Douglas and Grant Counties on the east side of the Columbia River. The easily recognized Pediocactus nigrispinus is a good indicator in many areas, but it is not always present or may be sparse and hard to find. With a little experience Artemisia rigida is easy to pick out and it seems to be present in all but the rockiest patches. If you see a sizeable area with rocky soil and sparse vegetation but lots of a low winter-deciduous sagebrush (no more than 3 feet tall) it is very likely Artemisia rigida. The scabland supports a remarkable diversity of plants, but they are rarely very densely spaced and often early plants have died back before later plants flower, so they often look rather sparsely vegetated. By midsummer all but the Artemisia rigida and the Eriogonum subshrubs and the cacti have died back, so they look even more barren. For a few precious weeks in early to mid spring the are lots of flowers. April and early May are peak flower times, but there are Lomatiums in flower in March as well, and a few plants still in flower through mid June. In some patches, Lomatium quintuplex is abundant in some patches and produces a sparse carpet of small yellow flowers.

Common associates in Kittitas County scablands (associates in Yakima County just to the south are probably very similar but I have not visited them as much):
Allium acuminatum
Astragalus purshii
Antennaria dimorpha
Balsamorhiza hookeri
Castilleja thompsonii
Delphinium nuttallianum
Eremogone franklinii
Erigeron linearis
Erigeron poliospermus
Eriogonum douglasii
Eriogonum thymoides
Lewisia rediviva
Lomatium canbyi
Lomatium macrocarpum
Lomatium quintuplex
Lupinus sp. (probably L. saxosus)
Neoholmgrenia hilgardii
Nestotus stenophyllus
Nothocalais troximoides
Pediocactus nigrispinus
Penstemon gairdneri
Phacelia linearis
Phlox douglasii
Phlox hoodii
Phlox longifolia
Phoenicaulis cheiranthoides
Poa secunda
Trifolium macrocephalum
Viola trinervata

There are less common associates, and be aware that this list does not include plants of deeper soils adjacent to many of the scabland expanses, which support a different plant community associated with Big Sagebrush. For scabland, look for areas that are rather barren looking and with obviously rocky soil, lacking any tall shrubs, and usually with lots of the low rather scraggly looking Artemisia rigida (which is also deciduous if you are there from about November to March). Often the Big Sagebrush will be in lower areas or patches of deeper soil, including shallow valleys, with the scabland mostly on ridges and slopes (low rounded ridges, don't expect mountains). There may be interspersed talus slopes or rocky ridge tops, which tend to support even fewer plants.

The delineation between scabland and Big Sagebrush habitat is often rather abrupt but sometimes they are intergraded or occur in interspersed patches.

Publicado el junio 1, 2023 03:51 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

30 de mayo de 2023

Phlox douglasii

Publicado el mayo 30, 2023 04:27 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario


E. elatum - late flowering, large ovate to arrowhead shaped basal leaves on petioles about leaf-length, very tall flower stems, usually highly branched, leafless, giving a rather sparse open look with small flowers.

E. heracleoides - usually with large leafy mid-stem bract (often missing in certain areas), largish plant, flowers cream to pink infused

E. ovalifolium - very low silvery to greyish foliage (occasionally green) varying from small upright paddle-like leaves to densely packed curled leaves, often forming sizeable mats. One variety has brown margins on leaves. With close inspection three tepals are much narrower and longer than others. Flowers can be candy-striped, or pale to bright yellow, or sometimes dark pink or even red. Flower bracts form a cluster of several conical bract sheaths, each bearing several flowers. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/171453389

E. sphaerocephalum - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/163335630

E. thymoides - easy to recognized from small neat rounded habit and thymelike leaves. sometimes old plants sprawl and have a larger woody base but the growing parts still have the neat habit. This and E. douglasii are usually found in very rocky shallow soil (scabland).

E. umbellatum - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/120446928

E. niveum and E. strictum are similar but differentiated by the leafy bract below the flower branches in E. niveum. Some E. strictum may not have single flower clusters, not secondary umbels?

Burke: "The leafy bracts below the flowers throughout the inflorescence separates E. niveum from the similar E. strictum, which has no leafy bracts." JHT adds - the bract leaves are smaller than the basal leaves but similarly hairy and silver in tone.

Comments and links on iNat:

From jdjohnson:
"Dimorphic tepals means that three tepals are wide and three tepals are narrow. If you find a close-up photo of Eriogonum ovalifolium flowers, you can see the difference."

E. ovalifolium: apparent with a good close up of individual flowers that are well opened, and then dimorphic tepals are very clear, e.g. photo 3 of https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/44852252), with the inner whorl much narrower than the outer.

Publicado el mayo 30, 2023 03:09 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

16 de mayo de 2023

Ankeny Flats

The flat area near Ankeny Camp Area, just north of Dry Falls.

Main comments at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/160466117

Revisit to more fully map patterns. Especially closer to lake side where I haven't recorded as much, and after early May to catch the later flowering plants. Also visit in very early spring 2024 (~early April) to get the early flowering plants, which I missed in 2023.

Graphical species list should be gotten with:

Publicado el mayo 16, 2023 07:10 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

23 de abril de 2023

Primulas of Columbia Plateau

Most common and widespread are P. conjugens and P. pauciflora.

One distinguishing trait is the way the flower tube join near their top:
smoothly connected, appearing almost merged into a cylinder is P. pauciflora
clearly separated with deep clefts between them is P. conjugens, which is also less common and never on the west side (which sounds opposite, presumably conjugens doesn't refer to the tube joins)

Publicado el abril 23, 2023 10:42 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de abril de 2023

Balsamorhiza identification

B. hookeri - common, foxtail leaves, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/115263062
B. sagittata - large, very common, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/152379363

Publicado el abril 5, 2023 04:13 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

03 de abril de 2023

Lomatium identification


By molecular studies, Lomatium and Cymopteris (and a few Tauschia and others) are extensively interdigitated, which appears not to have fully penetrated to formal naming. George et al 2014 Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals Multiple Cases of Morphological Parallelism and Taxonomic Polyphyly in Lomatium .

Crush some leaves and smell them! Hmm they all seem to smell of cedar and turpentine roughly.

Cymopterus terebinthinus - except when fruiting looks a lot like a medium to large yellow Lomatium. In WA state often found in dry sandy/rocky soils and slightly sticky leaves and stems may have sand grains stuck on them. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/154124936

L. ambiguum - yellow tall lanky Lomatium with highly divided leaves mostly on floral stem and looking somehow ill-formed (like moose antlers? https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/119621448). Flowers mid spring, no involucre or involucel (umbel bracts), umbels usually multiple and well separated when mature. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/156334613 [unclear correct https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/156334613]
L. brandegeei - montane, medium to largish, deeply divided leaves, medium to narrow width leaflets with highly visible veination, yellow flowers, common in serpentine Wenatchees and more widely in Cascades despite being listed as vulnerable. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/127119593 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/167719744
L. canbyi - small early flowering white with fairly distinctive leaflets, usually grayish and held close to flat, often quinate division. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/154148039
L. columbianum - large and bushy rose flowers, unmistakable when in flower and even after, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149290580 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149326711
L. cuspidatum - serpentine, distinctive leaves, https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/jhorthos/68301-lomatium-cuspidatum-non-technical
L. dissectum (Fernleaf) - large bushy, dark red or yellow flowers, wider leaflets than L. multifidum, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/153198930
L. farinosum - very small yellow (or white) Lomatium with narrow branched leaves. Distinctive linear leaves with each side branch in three parts, nearly cylindrical with a prominent groove on top when young, sometimes flattened out a bit when older. All the ones I have seen are on scabland. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200672186
L. geyeri - medium small, white flowers with fairly narrow leaflets, a little larger and more leaves than L. gormanii and usually growing in deeper soil. Has a distinctive double root bulge (https://burkeherbarium.org/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Lomatium%20geyeri). https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200674165
L. gormanii - tiny white flowered, very early flowering, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149332671
L. hallii - small to medium, yellow flowers, found in Oregon including Siskiyous, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/152053418
L. howellii - uncommon, distinctive wide toothed leaflets, mostly on Klamath serpentine, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/122515620
L. klickitatense - large puffy finely dissected, leaflets longer than L. papilioniferm, yellow flowers, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149327085 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149328613
L. laevigatum - very narrow range mostly Columbia Transect, large yellow with long leaflets, involucre nearly absent, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/154127684
L. macrocarpum - medium sized, ground hugging when in flower (later more erect), green-white flowers (some yellow further south), hairy floral stalks and bracts, cusped leaflet tips, sometimes has quinate leaf division, ASYMMETRIC umbel bracts longer on outer hemisphere. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/153200598
L. martindalei - montane, small, usually prostrate, wide leaflets, yellow flowers, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/128448751
L. multifidum (Carrotleaf) large bushy highly dissected leaf, dark red or yellow flowers, very similar to L. dissectum but narrower leaf segments, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/155156511
L. nudicaule - sometimes montane, medium to large, broad-leaved, yellow flowers, large swollen base where umbels branch, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/117401560
L. papilioniferum - large showy yellow flowered, distinctive highly dissected leaves with short terminal leaflets, one of few on rock cliffs, extremely common in Columbia transect, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/154112604
L. quintuplex - small yellow flowered with highly dissected leaves and cusped nearly cylindrical leaflets, in marginal rocky sites. (convergent on or related to cuspidatum?) - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/158648966
L. roneurum - distinctive leaves, narrow range on Chumstick and adjacent gneiss rocks, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/155090697
L. triternatum - small to medium, long narrow leaflets, dense short hairs on rachis, sometimes disorganized looking leaves, yellow flowers, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/154127265
L. tuberosum - rare adorable plant, very distinctive foliage, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/154108537, fruits at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/115128062
L. utriculatum - small lowland coastal, yellow flowers early spring, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/152889731 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/200238973 for umbel details.

Publicado el abril 3, 2023 05:35 TARDE por jhorthos jhorthos | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario